A -B - C - D - E - F - G - I - L - M - O - P - Q - R - S - T - V

A


Gidajen murya: hali na sa mutum ya fi faɗar baki ya zama kama da muryoyin sifofin mai shiga tsakanin (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37).

Rashin lafiyar aphasia mai saurin magana. za'a iya samun agrammatism. Ka'idojin rarrabe magana mai inganci daga aphasia mara saurin magana sune: kasancewar ƙwanƙwaran magana, tsawon jimlar, adadin magana, kasancewar tashin hankali ko ɗaukar hoto. Gabaɗaya, kasancewar maganin ɓarke ​​baki da kuma tsawon jimla ana la’akari da sama da duka: idan babu wata jimlar da ta ƙunshi aƙalla kalmomi shida (aƙalla jumla ɗaya cikin goma) gabaɗaya rashin jin daɗin magana ne (Basso, Sanin sani da sake ilmantar da aphasia, 2009: 64).

Afemia: [aphasia] Maganar farko na abin da za'a kira daga baya aphasia, wanda Paul Broca ya tsara don ayyana waɗanda ba za su iya bayyana kansu da magana ba duk da cewa suna da kyakkyawar fahimta.


Zamani: [harshe] Tsarin tsari: sauya sauti mai sassauƙa tare da naƙasa. Misali: "cagia" don "gida" (cf. labarin mu akan Phonetics da Phonology)

Bincike Bambanci (ANOVA): [ƙididdigar, hanyar bincike] dabarar ƙididdigar ƙwaƙwalwa wanda ke ba ka damar kwatanta ƙungiyoyi daban-daban a cikin hanya ɗaya na gurɓatar da maganar rashin lalacewa, ta hanyar gwada bambanci tsakanin ƙungiyoyi da bambance-bambancen bazuwar (duba kuma duba) Bolzani da Canestrari, Logic na istididdigar Jarrabawar, 1995).

Anteriorizzazione: [harshe] Tsarin tsari: maye gurbin sauti na baya da na waje. Misali: "tasa" don "gida" (cf. labarin mu akan Phonetics da Phonology).

aposiopesis: [linguistics] Rushewar hukuncin wanda ba zai ci gaba ba. A matsayin ƙamus na magana, an yi niyya yasa mai karatu ko mai sauraro su tsammaci sauran jumlar. Game da batun aphasias, kodayake, yakan zama mai tasirantuwa ne da rashin samun damar ci gaba saboda matsaloli dangane da jumla ko matsaloli wajen maido da ajali.

Kuskure na koyo: [neuropsychology, ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya] dabarar haddacewa ta farko an haɓaka su ga marasa lafiya amnesic, wanda ya ƙunshi jagora da sauƙaƙe koyon bayanai don hana kuskure da kuma haddacewarsa a matakin bayyananne (duba kuma duba) Kuskuren Koyi a cikin Sakewar Hankali: Yin Bita mai Ciki, 2012. Mazzucchi, Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 2012).

Apraxia: [rikicewar kwakwalwa] rikicewar bayyanar motsi da aka koya, duka alamun yin amfani da abubuwa da kuma alamomin alama. Hakan ba sakamakon sauya tsarin motoci ba ne, rashi na ilimi, rashi na hankali ko kuma rashi a cikin ƙimar abubuwa (duba duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Akasarin Manufa: Kwayar halittar mahaifa game da amfani da abu (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Ferotonotor apraxia: Kwayar cutar mahaifa (neuropsychology) wadda take da sauƙin canza kwayoyi, duka marasa ma'ana (akan kwaikwayo) da alama (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001)

Acraxia mai aiki: nau'in apraxia wanda ke da alaƙa da ma'anar hoton kwayar halitta (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Aikin rigakafi: [cutar neurochochology] game da damar sanya sutura (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Apraxia daga cikin ganin: acraxia wanda ya shafi canjin motsin idanu (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Maris Apraxia: nau'in apraxia wanda ke haifar da rashin iya ɗaukar matakai (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Optic ataxia: Rashin daidaituwa na gani wanda ke tattare da isa ga kurakurai tare da gabar wani abu da aka gani. Yawancin lokaci ana haifar dashi ta hanyar rauni na kwakwalwa zuwa hanyar gani na hanji. Bai dogara da gazawar gane abu da za'a kai shi a kama shi ba, kodayake hulɗa da shi a matakin motar yana da wahala (duba kuma Ladàvas da Berti, Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014).

yiwuwa (ko dogaro): [psychometry] mallakin kayan aikin aunawa (gwaji) wanda ke nuna irin ƙarfin kwanciyar hankali a yayin da aka maimaita matakan. Ta wata hanyar, yana nuna yadda amintaccen gwajin yake (duba kuma Weltkovitz, Cohen da Ewen, isticsididdigar Kimiyyar Halayyar Behavioral, 2009).

Zabi mai hankali: [neuropsychology, hankali] ɓangaren kulawa da ke da alaƙa da ikon rarraba albarkatun mai hankali akan ƙwarin gwiwa masu dacewa, rage tsangwama na abubuwan motsa jiki waɗanda suke ba amma ba su da mahimmanci ga ayyukan da za'ayi. Yankin zaɓi na zaɓa ya haɗa da mai da hankali, rarrabuwar rarrabuwa da juzu'i mai kulawa (Vallar et al., Maimaitawar Neuropsychological, 2012).

B

Karamin Harshen Bilingualism (ko Multilingualism): [harshe] lokacin da ake koyan yaruka biyu lokaci guda (duba Marini da shi Rashin harshe, 2014: 68)

Coordinated Bilingualism (ko kuma rarrabuwa): [harshe] lokacin da ake koyan yare biyu ko sama da haka kafin balaga amma ba cikin da'irar dangi (misali musayar) (duba Marini da shi Rashin harshe, 2014: 68)

Ordinarancin cika masaki biyu (ko kuma plurilingualism): [harshe] lokacin da ake amfani da yare ɗaya ko fiye ta amfani da yare na farko azaman matsakaici (duba) Marini da shi Rashin harshe, 2014: 68)

Barancin magana biyu na farko: [harshe] lokacin da yaro ya fallasa yaren na biyu bayan na farko, amma a kowane hali kafin ya cika shekara takwas (duba Marini da shi Rashin harshe, 2014: 68)

Atearshe mai cikakken magana biyu: [harshe] lokacin da yaro ya fallasa ga yare na biyu bayan na farko, amma bayan shekara takwas (duba) Marini da shi Rashin harshe, 2014: 68)

Yin magana a cikin harshe biyu na lokaci daya: [harshe] lokacin da yaro ya fallasa yaruka biyu daga farkon kwanakin rayuwa (duba Marini da shi Rashin harshe, 2014: 68)

C

Jumla mai ɗaukar magana (ko jumlar tallafi): wani lafazin da aka saba amfani dashi ana iya amfani da shi don fitar da takamaiman kalmomi (misali: "Don Allah, ba ni ...").

circumlocution: [ilimin ilimin harsuna] amfani da "juzu'ai kalmomi" don komawa zuwa kalmar da ba za a iya murmurewa ba (sosai a cikin yanayin aphasias). Misali: “wanda zai yanke gurasa” a ce “wuka”.

Harshen iyawar rubutu: [koyo] ikon girmama dokoki da babban taron da ake gabatarwa a cikin yarenmu na yanzu wanda ke kawo canji game da canjin yare da aka saurara ko tunani a cikin harshen da aka nuna shi da harshe (Tressoldi da Cornoldi, 2000, Batirin don tantance rubuce-rubuce da ƙwarewar haruffa a cikin makarantar tilasta)

Sadarwar Magancewa da Musanya (CAA): duk wata sadarwar da ta sauya ko haɓaka harshen magana; yanki ne na aikin asibiti wanda ke neman rama ga raunin na ɗan lokaci ko na dindindin na mutanen da ke da hadaddun hanyoyin sadarwa (ASHA, 2005, wanda aka kawo sunayensu) Constantine, Gina littattafai da labarai tare da CAA, 2011: 54)

Hakanan conduites d'ioncheche: [aphasia] yunƙurin kusanci kalma ta hanyar farawa na karya ko parafasias na muryar magana. Misali: "la pa ... pasca, pasma, pastia ..." don faɗi "taliya" (duba misali Marini, Manunin Neurolinguistics, 2018: 143 e Mazzucchi, Juyin asibitin Neuropsychological, 2012)

confabulation: [neuropsychology] a cikin yanayin rikicewar ƙwaƙwalwa cuta alama ce ta "tabbatacciya" wacce aka saita a matsayin samarwa na sanarwa na maganganu ko ayyukan da suka yi daidai da tushen baya ko na baya, yanzu ko halin da ake ciki na batun (na gaba).Daga gemu, G. (1993b). Hanyoyi daban-daban na rikicewa. bawo, 29, 567-581) - godiya ga Ilaria Zannoni

hulda: [ƙididdigar, hanyar bincike] ƙungiyar tsakanin masu canji guda biyu kamar cewa zuwa bambancin ɗayan ya dace da bambancin ɗayan. Yawancin masu canji guda biyu suna da alaƙa, mafi ƙarfi hulɗa zai kasance. Daidaitar ta bambanta tsakanin maki 1 (kamar yadda sau ɗaya yake ƙaruwa, akai ta ƙaruwa mai girma) da -1 (yayin da sau ɗaya ke ƙaruwa, akwai raguwa na ɗayan na lokaci; tare da kashi 0, akwai a maimakon haka) duka rashi daidai tsakanin masu canji biyu.
Kasancewar tana da dangantaka, kodayake mai ƙarfi, baya nuna alamar caji tsakanin masu canji guda biyu (duba kuma Welkowits, Cohen da Ewen, Isticsididdiga na Kimiyyar Halayyar ɗabi'a, 2009).

Cinging: [aphasia] ƙarancin, wayar salula da / ko shawara mai zurfi, da aka bayar idan mai haƙuri ba zai iya dawo da kalmar manufa da kansa ba (duba, alal misali, Conroy et al., Amfani da kiran waya na sanannu ta hanyar bada lamuni don hango hasashen abun da za'aji don magance cutar rashin lafiyan dake cikin aphasia, 2012)

D

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] hanawar isowar jijiyoyi ga tsarin manufa. Wannan na faruwa ne ta hanyar rauni na neurons waɗanda suke asalin asalin axons ɗin da suka kai gaɓar mahallin, ko kuma rauni na axon kansu (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Rashin hankali: [neuropsychology] wani nau'in sassauci na rashin hankali (duba duba rashi na hankali ko raunin tunani), wanda ya shahara sosai da ƙarfin ilimin haɓaka (IQ tsakanin 70 da 50), wahala a cikin daidaitawar jama'a da bayyanar rashi a lokacin haɓaka.

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] hanawar isowar jijiyoyi ga tsarin manufa. Wannan na faruwa ne ta hanyar rauni na neurons waɗanda suke asalin asalin axons ɗin da suka kai gaɓar mahallin, ko kuma rauni na axon kansu (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Enarfin Neuronal: [neuroscience] asarar ci gaba na takamaiman tsari da aikin wani sabo ko rukuni na neurons wanda zai haifar da bacewarsu (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

muffling: [harshe] Tsarin tsarin: sauyawa sauti tare da kurame mai dacewa. Misali: "panana" don "banana" (cf. labarin mu akan Phonetics da Phonology)

Tabbatacciyar daidaituwa (ma'ana karkatar da fili): [ƙididdiga] kimantawa game da canji na saitin bayanai, wanda aka samo daga tushen murabba'in bambancin. Yana nunawa nawa bayanan ke watsuwa a tsakani (kamar yadda suke karkata akan matsakaici daga gareshi) amma, sabanin bambanci, ana bayyana wannan sigogi a sashi na ma'auni kamar matsakaici (duba kuma duba) Welkowits, Cohen da Ewen, Isticsididdiga na Kimiyyar Halayyar ɗabi'a, 2009).

dysgraphia: [koyo] rubutu tare da wahala, ba tare da wannan ya zama sanadin cuta mai kwakwalwa ko iyakancewar hankali ba (Ajuriaguerra et al., Lécriture de l'enfant. 1 °. L'evolution del'écriture et ses hardés, 1979 cit a cikin Di Brina et al., BHK, 2010)

Dyspraxia: Rashin lafiya [neuropsychology] wanda ke shafar gaskiyar halayen motsi, musamman waɗanda aka lura a daidai lokacin kwaikwayon. Bai dogara da kasawar tsarin abin hawa ba, matsalar ilimi ko kuma kasawar hankali. Ya bambanta da cutar birrai saboda kalmar dyspraxia tana nufin cuta da aka lura yayin haɓaka (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Maganar dyspraxia: [harshe] Damuwa ta tsakiya a cikin shirye-shirye da kuma fahimtar motsi iri-iri wanda yakamata don samar da sauti, karafa da kalmomi sannan kuma ga tsarin su (Chilosis da Cerri, Verbal dyspraxia, 2009 VD. kuma Sabbadini, Dyspraxia a cikin shekarun haɓakawa: ƙimantawa da ka'idojin shiga tsakani, 2005)

Rashin harshe na harshe na harshe na harshe: [harshe] kowane rashin cancantar yare wanda ke faruwa yayin haɓaka, tare da kusanci ko imarancin alama ta harshen kansa, a cikin abubuwan da suke da ɗaya ko fiye na hanyoyin da ke biye: ramuwar sani, haɓaka (ɓarna) rikicewar haɓaka, mummunar cuta na aikin dubawa, rashin jin daɗin rayuwa mai mahimmanci (Gilardone, Casetta, Luciani, Yaron da ke fama da matsalar magana. Maganar kimantawa da magani, Cortina, Turin 2008).

Kashili mai kwakwalwa: [neuropsychology] yaduwar ɗayan jijiya guda a kan ɗayan ta hanyar kulawa da hankali ko aikin motsa jiki; sabili da haka shine tushen rushewar ƙwaƙwalwar zuciya. Misalai sune yare, yawanci tare da haguwar iko hagu, da kuma hanyoyin zuzzurfan tunani, tare da madaidaicin ikon hauka Habib, Hemispheric Dominance, 2009, EMC - Neurology, 9, 1-13)

E

ecolalia: [harshe] Maimaita kalmomi ko jumlar saurara, ba tare da fahimtar su ba. Yana faruwa a ilimin dabbobi a yara musamman a shekaru 2-3 (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37) da kuma ilimin dabbobi a cikin manya, alal misali a cikin Parkinson's.

Sakamakon tsammanin: [kididdigar] canza sakamakon bincike sakamakon tsammanin sakamakon da mai binciken ya samar ko kuma batun abubuwan gwaji da kansu. An bayyana shi a karo na farko ta masanin ilimin halayyar dan adam Robert Rosenthal don haka a wasu lokuta ana kiranta Tasirin Rosenthal (ko ma Tasirin Pygmalion o annabcin kai mai cika kai). Abu ne mai mahimmanci wanda za'a yi la’akari da shi a cikin bincike wanda tasirin ɗan adam shine ƙaddara abu kuma saboda wannan dalili ana kiran wannan sakamako a matsayin tambaya mai mahimmanci a cikin nazarin jijiyoyin da basa amfani da ƙungiyar kulawa mai aiki (watau aikatawa a cikin magani ko madadin ga gwaji) ko kuma ba sa amfani da rukunin sarrafawa.

Yanayin Yanayi: [koyo] gani Bayanin Ka'idoji na Karatun Watsa shirye-shiryen Multimedia

Tasirin Pygmalion: vedi Tasirin koyo

Fassarar placebo: [ilimin halin dan adam, magani] haɓakawa da aka bayar ta hanyar ba tare da takamaiman sakamako ba kuma an danganta shi da amintaccen da aka sanya a cikin ilimin kansa. Wannan tasirin, daidai yake gaTasirin tsammanin, yakan zama cikas a cikin bincike kan tasirin jiyya kuma ana kiyaye shi ta hanyar amfani da rukunin batutuwa, waɗanda ake kira nasu kungiyoyi masu sarrafawa, waɗanda ba a basu magani ko ana ba su na karya ba

Sakamakon rashin aiki: [koyo] gani Ka'idar Fahimtar Karatun Ilmantarwa

Tasirin Rosenthal: vedi Tasirin tsammanin

hemianopia: [neuropsychology] asarar hangen nesa a cikin rabin filin hangen nesa (ko na hudu quadrant a yanayin sa quadrantanopia) a sakamakon raunuka na gani na gani mai narkewa, fili mai narkewa, radadin gani ko kayan gani na gani (duba kuma Ladàvas da Berti, Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014)

Spinal emineglige (duba Nemo)

bayani: Harshe yana danganta da sukar da aka yi amfani da shi, ana iya ma'anar shi "sauti mara kyau tsakanin hutu biyu masu tsinkaye (cikakke ko fanko) mai ɗaukar aƙalla seconds biyu" (Bayanin acoustic), "toshe mahimmin ra'ayi, ko sassauƙa ko tsari mai rikitarwa" ( tsarin rubutu, "babban jumla tare da jerin ingantattun sakandare" (lafazin nahawu). (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 69)

Kuskuren Na Buga: [psychometry] ƙin rashin fahimta idan wannan gaskiya ne.
Misali: mai bincike yayi iƙirarin cewa sabon yare na haɓaka haɓaka halayen muryar mutum ya fi magani na yau da kullun; bayan an gwada maganin, ya ƙi H0 (i.e cewa cewa jiyya biyu sun yi daidai) kuma sun yarda da H1 (i.e. cewa sabon magani ya fi kyau) amma a zahiri jiyya biyu sun ba da sakamako iri ɗaya kuma bambance-bambancen da aka samo suna da alaƙa da kurakurai na hanyar ko sakamako na sa'a (duba kuma Weltkovitz, Cohen da Ewen, isticsididdigar Kimiyyar Halayyar Behavioral, 2009).

Kuskuren nau'in II: [psychometry] yarda da rashin tunani idan wannan ba ƙarya bane.
Misali: mai bincike yayi iƙirarin cewa sabon yare na haɓaka haɓaka halayen muryar mutum ya fi magani na yau da kullun; bayan an gwada maganin, ya yarda da H0 (i.e cewa cewa jiyya biyu sun yi daidai) kuma ya ƙi H1 (i.e. cewa sabon magani ya fi kyau) amma a zahiri jiyya biyu suna ba da sakamako daban. Rashin sakamako a wannan yanayin, a daya hannun, zai dogara ne da kuskuren hanyoyin, ƙarancin rabe-raben sakamakon sakamakon karar, ko kuma saboda ƙarancin ƙarfin gwajin ilimin lissafi (duba kuma Weltkovitz, Cohen da Ewen, isticsididdigar Kimiyyar Halayyar Behavioral, 2009).

F

Abubuwa masu ilmin lissafi: [ilmin lissafi] Sakamakon tsarin ilimin lissafi ne wanda bai kamata a kirga shi ba, amma an riga an mallaka dashi a ƙwaƙwalwa. Misali teburin maimaituwa da mahimmin kuɗi da ƙananan abubuwa. (Poli, Molin, Lucangeli da Cornoldi, Memocalcolo, 2006: 8)

Mai tacewa: [aphasia] cikakkiyar hutu da aka kafa ta sauti, wayar hannu, waƙa ko gutsattsuran kalmomi. Ana samun su galibi a farawar arya. "Ko dai yau kyakkyawar rana ce" (duba misali) Marini, Manunin Neurolinguistics, 2018: 143)

phonology: [linguistics] Harshe wanda ke nazarin kwarewar muryar magana wacce mai magana da harshen mahaifiyarsa yake, shine, tsarin da yake haɓaka farkon farkon rayuwar ɗan adam sannan kuma a sami saɓani tsakanin sautukan da ke bambanta ma’anoni da sautunan da kada ku bambance su (Nespor, phonology, 1993: 17)

Magana mai launi: [harshe] Hanyar da ke haɗa launi daban-daban ga kowane bangare na jumla (labarin, taken, fi'ili ...). Ana iya amfani da shi don jimlolin jumla biyu da waɗanda aka yi su da hoton hotuna (duba, alal misali, AA VV, De Filippis jawabin ba da ladabi, 2006).

Fricazione: [harshe] Tsarin tsari: sauya sauti mai ɗorewa ko ingantaccen sauti tare da tricative. Misali: "fasso" don "gaskiya" (cf. labarin mu akan Phonetics da Phonology)

Functors: [ilimin harshe] vd. Buɗewa da kalmomin aji

Ayyukan zartarwa: [neuropsychology] hadaddun tsarin kulawa da hankali don tsarawa da sarrafawa na halaye, da mahimmanci a cikin ayyukan da ba na sarrafa kansa ba wanda ke buƙatar kulawa mai mahimmanci (duba kuma labarin mu game da ayyukan zartarwa; Grossi da Trojano, Neuropsychology na Frontal Lobes, 2013).

G

gliding: [harshe] Tsarin tsari: maye gurbin mai ba da shawara tare da semiconsonant. Misali: “foia” na “ganye” (cf. labarin mu akan Phonetics da Phonology)

Alamar batir: wani irin alamar da hannaye suke motsa daga sama zuwa kasan don nuna alamun kalma ko kalmomin jumla (akan rawar da alamun motsa jiki ke gani. Asali na maganin magana a cikin girma, p. 234)

Ciki rauni Brain mai tsanani: [neurology]: Ta hanyar "mummunan rauni na kwakwalwa" (GCA) muna nufin lalacewar kwakwalwa, saboda cranioencephalic trauma ko wasu dalilai (kwakwalwa anoxia, basur, da sauransu), kamar su tantance yanayin rashin lafiyar ciki (GCS = / < 8 sama da awanni 24), da kuma firikwensin, fahimi ko raunin halaye, waɗanda ke haifar da nakasa mai ƙarfi (cf. Taron Yarjejeniyar: Kyakkyawar linabi'a Asibitin Asibitin Gyara mutanen da ke da Ciwon Mara Lafiya).

Rukunin Kulawa: [hanyar bincike] a cikin bincike wanda a ciki yayi nazarin tasirin canji mai zaman kanta akan rukunin batutuwa, alal misali magani, ana samun mafi yawan samfuran a cikin ƙananan rukuni biyu: ƙungiyar gwaji, wacce ke karɓar magani a ƙarƙashin bincike (m mai zaman kanta), da controlungiyar sarrafawa, wanda maimakon hakan ba ta karɓar wani magani ko karɓar wani madadin (saboda haka ba a ƙarƙashin rinjayar m mai zaman kanta). Controlungiyar sarrafawa ita ce wacce aka kwatanta tasirin magani akan ƙungiyar gwaji don rage tasirin wasu nuna bambanci (duba kuma Ercolani, Areni da Mannetti, Bincike A Cikin Ilimin Hauka, 1990).

I

Nauyin-Motar shiga cikin mota: [neuropsychology, mahara sclerosis] sabon abu wanda aka lura yayin aiwatar da aikin motar lokaci guda (misali tafiya) da aiki mai hankali (alal misali faɗi duk kalmomin da suka fara zuwa harafin da aka bayar); A cikin waɗannan yanayi yana yiwuwa a ga ragi a cikin injin, fahimi ko duka biyun. Ana yin nazari na tsinkaye-motoci musamman game da cututtukan cututtukan ƙwayar cuta saboda yana faruwa sau da yawa kuma ya fi kyau fiye da lafiyar jama'a. (Duba Ruggieri et al., 2018, Taswirar cuta ta Lesion alamar tsinkaye-bayan jijiya a cikin sclerosis da yawa).

Hadin kai-da-kai: sabon abu wanda yake kunshe da hada bayanai daga tashoshin hankali daban daban a cikin fahimta guda. Mafi daidaituwa, tsinkaye ne wanda ya ƙunshi ma'amala tsakanin yanayin tsinkaye iri biyu ko fiye da hakan (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crossmodal).

Tsarin Amincewa: [psychometry] wata dama ce ta ban girma tsakanin iyakoki biyu (babba da babba) wanda a cikinsa ne aka samu wani sigar (tare da karfin gwiwa).
Misali: idan bayan nayi WAIS-IV wani IQ na 102 ya fito tare da amincewa ta kashi 95% tsakanin 97 da 107, wannan yana nufin cewa a 95% yiwuwar "gaskiya" IQ na mutumin da aka bincika shine darajar tsakanin 97 da 107 (duba kuma Weltkovitz, Cohen da Ewen, isticsididdigar Kimiyyar Halayyar Behavioral, 2009).

Madadin maganganu: [psychometry] shima an nuna shi da H1. a fagen bincike shine asalin wanda mai binciken ya kirkira kuma wanda akayi nufin gwada shi.
Idan, alal misali, mai binciken ya yarda cewa madadin magani yana ba da sakamako daban-daban fiye da magani na yau da kullun, H1 zai wakilci kasancewar wannan bambancin tsakanin hanyoyin biyu daban-daban.
Hakanan an ayyana shi da cewa bisa ga abin da ƙaddarar lafazin ƙarya ce, kuma yana ƙididdige dabi'u don darajar ƙimar da aka bayar (duba kuma Weltkovitz, Cohen da Ewen, isticsididdigar Kimiyyar Halayyar Behavioral, 2009).

Magana mara kyau: [psychometry] shima an nuna shi tare da H0, a fagen bincike yana nufin hypothesis da ake ɗauka na gaskiya ne idan babu tabbataccen hujja da zata iya musanta shi.
Idan, alal misali, an yi niyya don nuna cewa magani ɗaya yafi tasiri fiye da wani, H0 zai wakilci hasashe cewa babu wani bambanci tsakanin jiyya biyun.
Hakanan ana ayyana shi azaman wanda aka ƙaddamar da kimar sigogi a cikin alƙarya ko bambancin da aka sa ran (wanda galibi yayi dace da sifilin) ​​tsakanin sigogin alkaluman mutanen biyu (duba kuma duba) Weltkovitz, Cohen da Ewen, isticsididdigar Kimiyyar Halayyar Behavioral, 2009).

L

Matsakaicin Tsawon Sirri (LME): [harshe] Brown ya gabatar da shi a cikin 1973, manufar ma'anar tsawon jimla yana nuna matsakaicin kalmomi ko maganganun da mai magana ya gabatar akan sammako - yawanci - jumla dari 100 (duba bayani). Wannan ɗayan jigogi ne na kwarewar harshe a cikin sarrafawa (duba, Brown, Harshe Na Farko, 1973).

M

Tsarin Tasiri: [aphasia] Hypothesis gwargwadon abin da mara jin ciwo marasa lafiya, yayin da suke riƙe da isasshen ƙwaƙwalwar iko, suna da wahala sanya rawar da ke tattare da jumla zuwa tsarin magana na gardi (cf. Boscarato da Modena a Flosi, Charlemagne da Rossetto, Ldon gyara mutum da cutar ta aphasia, 2013: 57)

Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT): Harshen [aphasia] don farfado da cutar ta aphasia wanda ke amfani da yanayin waƙar magana (karin waƙoƙi da kari) ta hanyar waƙoƙi (duba Norton et al., Melodic Intonation Therapy: Rarraba Hankali akan Yadda ake yin sa da Abinda yasa Dogara ya Taimako, 2009)

Memorywaƙwalwar aiki: [neuropsychology] Tsarin da zai baka damar adana bayanai na dan lokaci dan gudanar dashi ko sarrafa shi (cf. Baddeley da Hitch, Memorywaƙwalwar Aiki, 1974). Duba kuma labarin mu Mene ne ƙwaƙwalwar aiki.

Pectivewaƙwalwar hangen nesa: [neuropsychology] ikon tunawa da aiwatar da aiki bayan shiryawa (duba misali, Rouleau et al. Rashin ƙwaƙwalwar mai yiwuwa a cikin sclerosis da yawa: bita, 2017). Duba kuma labarinmu mai zurfi akan Memorywaƙwalwar hangen nesa a cikin ƙwayoyin cuta da yawa

Meta-bincike: [ƙididdigar] nau'ikan bincike na ƙididdiga waɗanda ke ba da izinin taƙaita sakamakon binciken daban-daban dangane da wannan jigo, ƙoƙarin rage tasirin sakamakon bambancin sakamakon binciken mutum, yana yin kowane tsari (duba kuma duba) Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Metacognition: magana game da wayewar kai game da ilimin mutum kuma, a lokaci guda, matakai da dabarun da ke tsara shi (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Metafonologia: iyawa don gwadawa, bangare kuma rarrabe kalmomin da aka gabatar da baki ta hanyar tsarin sihirinsu (Bishop & Snowling, dyslexia na haɓakar ci gaba da ƙarancin harshe: guda ɗaya ko daban?, Psychol Bulletin 130 (6), 858-886, 2004)

tallan kayan kawa (duba Yanayi)

Eriirƙirari da ɗaukar hoto: kayan aikin asalin suna canza ma'anar gindi (misali cas + in + a); kawai hoto ne kawai ya canza nau'ikan kalmomi. Misali, jinsi ko lamba: cas + a (cf. Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 13)

N

Nemo: [neuropsychology] cututtukan neuropsychological, yawanci yakan haifar da raunin kwakwalwa, wanda ya ƙunshi rashi a cikin fahimtar sararin samaniya. Mutumin da yake gabatar da waɗannan alamu yana nuna wahalar bincika sararin yarjejeniya dangane da raunin kwakwalwa, ƙarancin sani game da abubuwan da suke gabatarwa a wani bangare na sararin samaniya (galibi a ciki), tsinkaye ko karin magana (duba ma labarinmu). Rashin Gani: gefen duhu na duniya)

Rashin kula da sarari na musamman (duba Nemo)

Jigilar madubi: [neuros psycho] class of neurons wanda ke kunna duka biyu yayin da mutum yayi wani aiki kuma idan mutum guda ya lura da irin aikin da wani batun yayi (https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroni_specchio)

O

holophrasis: [harshe] yin amfani da kalma ɗaya don bayani ko roƙo wanda zai buƙaci jumla gaba ɗaya. Ya yi kama da farkon ci gaban yare a cikin yaro. Ex: "cua" don "Ina son ruwa".

P

paraphasia: [aphasia] kalmar da aka samar ba daidai ba dangane da wata manufa. Paraphasia na iya zama murhun mutum (misali: "libbium" don "littafi") ko kalma (kalma "don" littafi "). (duba misali Marini, Manunin Neurolinguistics, 2018: 143)

Buɗewa da kalmomin aji: [linguistics] kalmomin bude aji (ko kalmomin abun ciki) sunaye ne, alamomin cancanta, lafazin lexical da karin magana da ke ƙare magana; rufe kalmomin aji (ko kalmomin aiki o functors) sunaye ne, alamominda basu cancanta ba, labarai, tattaunawa, karin magana da karin magana. Yayinda kalmomin suke isar da ma'anar tsinkaye, masu ba da dariya suna bayyana alaƙa tsakanin kalmomi.

Binciken Abubuwan Taurari na Kayan Fida: [aphasia] tsarin gabatar da Leonard, Rochon and Laird (2008) wanda ya ƙunshi gabatar da mai haƙuri tare da hoto a tsakiyar wata takarda tare da buƙatar dawo da kalmar manufa. Ko da kuwa cin nasarar, an nemi mai haƙuri ya sake dawo da wata kalma mai cike da rudani, ta farko wayar, wata kalma ce wacce take farawa da wayar guda da kuma adadin syllables. (duba Boscarato da Modena a ciki Flosi, Charlemagne da Rossetto, Ldon gyara mutum da cutar ta aphasia, 2013: 47)

Gilashin Neuronal: [neuropsychology] Yiwuwar sel sel ya zama mai iya yin wasu ayyukan idan ya zama dole. (Gollin, Ferrari, Peruzzi, Gidan motsa jiki don tunani, 2007: 15).

Testarfin gwaji na ƙididdiga: [ilimin halin dan adam] na nufin yuwuwar kin yarda da mummunar hasashe, ta hanyar gwajin ilimin kididdiga, lokacin da wannan gaskiya ne.
Misali: idan wani gwaji tare da wani samfurin samfurin yana da karfin ikon ilimin lissafi na 80%, wannan yana nuna cewa akwai yiwuwar samun kashi 80% na samun bayanan da zai sa mu ƙi yarda da ƙibili mara kyau, muddin dai wannan a zahiri karya ne (duba kuma Weltkovitz, Cohen da Ewen, isticsididdigar Kimiyyar Halayyar Behavioral, 2009).

Tsarin tsari: [harshe] Canza waya ɗaya tare da wata, yayin jerin abubuwan syllabic ɗin ba su canzawa (duba, misali, Santoro, Panero da Cianetti, Karamin nau'i 1, 2011).

Tsarin tsari: [harshe] Canza tsarin silayar kalma, tare da canza yanayin abubuwa da kuma jerin baqaqe da wasula da ke sanya shi (duba ga misali, Santoro, Panero da Cianetti, Karamin nau'i 1, 2011)

Annabcin biyan bukatar kansa: vedi Tasirin tsammanin

Inganta Ingantaccen Tasirin sadarwa (PACE) : [aphasia] tsarin shawo kan cutar rashin ido na aphasia wanda likitan mai magana ya bayyana duk dabarun da za su iya tabbatarwa da kuma karfafa cancantar sadarwa ta mara lafiya (duba karin bayani game da Trump a Flosi, Charlemagne da Rossetto, Ldon gyara mutum da cutar ta aphasia, 2013: 105 e Charlemagne, Pragmatic tana gab da warkewar rashin lafiyar aphasia. Daga misalai marasa karfi zuwa dabarun PACE, 2002)

Darajar nauyi: [psychometry] canjin lissafi na Z maki (tare da ma'anar 0 da daidaitaccen karkacewa 1) a cikin maki tare da ma'anar 10 da daidaitattun daidaituwa 3. Idan aka kwatanta da maki Z saboda haka ya bambanta kawai a cikin bayyanar amma abubuwan sun kasance iri ɗaya ne. Amfaninta shine cewa ya sa ba tsammani cewa maki tare da ƙimar mummuna zai faru, koda kuwa ƙasa da matsakaita. Ana amfani dasu a cikin gwaje-gwaje daban-daban kamar, misali, NEPSY-II.

Scalar ci: [psychometry] canjin lissafi na Z maki (tare da ma'anar 0 da daidaitaccen karkacewa 1) a cikin maki tare da ma'anar 10 da daidaitattun daidaituwa 3. Idan aka kwatanta da maki Z saboda haka ya bambanta kawai a cikin bayyanar amma abubuwan sun kasance iri ɗaya ne. Amfaninta shine cewa ya sa ba tsammani cewa maki tare da ƙimar mummuna zai faru, koda kuwa ƙasa da matsakaita. Ana amfani dasu a cikin gwaje-gwaje daban-daban kamar, misali, WISC-IV.

Matsakaicin maki: [psychometry] darajan da aka yi amfani da su a gwaje-gwaje da yawa (misali a cikin BVN 5-11) tare da kaddarorin da suka yi kama da IQ (duba Har ila yau, a hankali).

T ci (sikelin T): [psychometry] canjin lissafi na Z maki (tare da ma'anar 0 da daidaitaccen karkacewa 1) a cikin maki tare da ma'anar 50 da daidaitattun daidaituwa 10. Idan aka kwatanta da maki Z saboda haka ya banbanta da bayyanar amma kaddarorin sun kasance iri ɗaya. Amfaninta shine cewa yana haifar da abin da ya faru tare da ƙarancin ƙima, koda kuwa ƙananan ƙasa ne (duba kuma Ercolani, Areni da Mannetti, Bincike A Cikin Ilimin Hauka, 1990). Ana amfani dasu a cikin gwaje-gwaje daban-daban kamar, alal misali, Hasumiyar London.

Z ci (daidaitaccen ci): [ƙididdiga, ƙimar psychometry] wanda ke nuna yawan tamanin da ya karkata daga matsakaicin da ake tsammani, idan aka kwatanta shi da daidaitaccen karkatarwa. Sakamakon binciken yana da ma'anar 0 da daidaitaccen daidaituwa 1 wanda ya sa maki Z 0 ya nuna ƙima daidai gwargwado tare da tsammanin, maki sama da 0 yana nuna ƙimar sama da matsakaici kuma maki ƙasa da 0 yana nuna ƙaramin darajar fiye da matsakaita. An samo shi ta hanyar rage ƙimar matsakaici daga ƙimar da aka lura da kuma rarraba komai ta hanyar daidaituwa na matsakaita: (lura darajar - kafofin watsa labaru,) / misali karkacewa (duba kuma Welkowits, Cohen da Ewen, Isticsididdiga na Kimiyyar Halayyar ɗabi'a, 2009).

Q

Quadranopsia: (duba hemianopia)

R

Gwajin da Aka Gudanar da shi (RCT): [tsarin bincike] an ayyana shi azaman "da gaske" ƙirar bincike don yana ba da cikakken ikon yin gwaji akan canjin amfani. Yana ba da cewa abubuwan da ake gudanar da binciken ana rarraba su bazuwar (bazuwar) a cikin ƙungiyar gwaji ko kuma a cikin rukuni na sarrafawa ta yadda kowa da kowa yana da damar guda ɗaya na ƙare a ɗaya ko ɗayan (ƙungiyoyin da ba a ba su ba), don haka rage yiwuwar hakan Rukuni sun banbanta da juna, wanda zai jefa shakku kan yiwuwar tasirin mai ban sha'awa (duba kuma Ercolani, Areni da Mannetti, Bincike A Cikin Ilimin Hauka, 1990).

Kashi dari: [kididdigar, psychometry] daidaituwa bisa matsayin wanda batutuwa suka mamaye wani yanki na ma'auni akan sikelin daga 1 zuwa 99. Ana amfani da su a gwaje-gwaje da yawa, misali a Baturin Italiyanci don ADHD (duba kuma Ercolani, Areni da Mannetti, Bincike A Cikin Ilimin Hauka, 1990).

Hakikanin Manyan Magungunan Raunin Gaskiya (ROT): [neuropsychology] Therapy wanda babban dalilinsa shine inganta daidaituwa akan lokaci, a sarari kuma tare da mutunta kai. Akwai takamaiman ROT (ingantaccen jerin jerin tarurruka) da ROT na yau da kullun, waɗanda ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ma'aikata suke aiwatarwa a duk ranar. (Gollin, Ferrari, Peruzzi, Gidan motsa jiki don tunani, 2007: 13)

Rage Tsarin Syntax (REST): [aphasia] Kulawa ga marasa lafiya marasa wahala wanda, maimakon mai da hankali kan samar da jumla daidai, yana sauƙaƙe yin amfani da tsarin sassauƙa kamar waɗanda aka yi amfani da su ta hanyar abubuwan al'ada da aka gabatar (da aka gabatar Springer et al., 2000; VD. Basso, Ganewa da kuma sake ilmantar da aphasia, 2009: 35)

Reformulation [maganin magana]: hanyar da ta kunshi maimaita abin da mai shiga tsakani ya haifar da barin ma'anar ba a canzawa ba amma samar da tsari mai kyau ta hanyar kara kalma wacce ta bace ko maye gurbin kalma tare da wacce ta dace ko kuma mafi dacewa (don ƙarin cikakkun bayanai duba "dabaru cikin saƙo" a cikin Asali na maganin magana a cikin girma, p. 235)

ƙarfafa: [ilimin halin dan adam, halayyar] tashin hankali wanda ya kara ko rage yiwuwar bayyanar wasu dabi'un. Cementarfafa ƙarfafa ya kasu kashi huɗu manyan: manyan, na biyu (ko sharadi), tabbatacce kuma mara ƙarfi ƙarfafa. Cearfafawa na farko sune waɗanda ke da alaƙa da rayuwa (abinci, abin sha, barci, jima'i ...) yayin da ƙarfafawa ta sakandare ta kasance tsaka tsaki na farawa wanda ke samun darajar ƙarfafawa yayin da suke da alaƙa da sauran abubuwan ƙarfafawa waɗanda tuni suna da ƙarfin ƙarfafawa. Reinforarfafa ƙarfafawa yawanci ana samun nutsuwa ta hanyar magana mai gamsarwa kuma ƙara haɓakar yiwuwar halayyar halayya wacce zasu yi tarayya dasu yayin da mummunan ƙarfafa ƙara haɓakar halayyar ta hanyar dakatar da ƙwarin gwiwa mara kyau sakamakon aiwatarwa (duba kuma duba) Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Reserveitive Reserve: [neuropsychology, tsufa] saitunan dabaru na hankali, canji daga mutum zuwa mutum, aiwatarwa don bambanta ko rama hanyoyin tafiyar da cutar ci gaba. Suna dogara ne da halaye na mutum a cikin hanyoyin sadarwa wanda ke bijiro da irin abubuwan rayuwa kamar su ilimi, sana'oi da ayyukan nishadi (duba kuma Passafiume da Di Giacomo, Cutar Alzheimer ta, 2006).

S

Yanada Yanke Sihiri (SFI): [harshe] (ko kuma syllabic, ko protomorphemic fillers) suna ɗaukar madaidaicin matsayi a cikin sanarwa kuma tabbas suna iya cika matsayin "alamomin matsayi" na abubuwan haɗin gwiwa (Bottari et al., Abubuwan da aka shigo dasu na asali don sayen ƙwayoyin cutar Italiyanci na kyauta, 1993, wanda aka ambata a cikin: Ripamonti et al., Lepi: Bayyanar da yare na yara, 2017)

Binciken Yanki na Semantic: hanyar [aphasia] wanda ke tunanin cewa dawo da bayanin ra'ayi ya faru ne ta hanyar samun dama ga cibiyoyin sadarwar dariku bisa ga hasashe cewa kunna sifofin halayen ma'abuta manufa yakamata su kunna maƙasudin kansa sama da matakin matakinsa, Gudanar da murmurewa daga kalmar, tare da tasirin aiwatarwa a kan wasu maƙasudai waɗanda ke da halaye guda ɗaya na jumla (duba Boscarato da Modena a Flosi, Charlemagne da Rossetto, Ldon gyara mutum da cutar ta aphasia, 2013: 44).

Sahihancin gwajin: [ƙididdiga]: ikon gwajin don gano batutuwa tare da wasu halayyar (tabbatattun halaye na gaske), misali kasancewar dyslexia. Ta wata hanyar, shi ne rabo na batutuwa waɗanda, ta hanyar gwaji, gwada tabbatacce ga halayyar idan aka kwatanta da duka abubuwan da suka mallake shi; shan misalin disiki na dyslexia kuma, hankali shine rabe-raben batutuwa waɗanda a kowane gwaji suke dyslexic, idan aka kwatanta da waɗanda wadatattun dyslexic ɗin suke.
Idan muka kira S abin lura, A adadin dyslexics ɗin da aka gano daidai ta hanyar gwajin (tabbatattun gaskiya) da B adadin dyslexics ɗin da ba a gano shi ba (kwatankwacin arya), to za a iya bayyanar da hankalin kamar S = A / (A + B) .

Yanayi: [ilimin halin dan adam, halayyar] Shigar da mai binciken abubuwan amsawar da aka nema. Ya ƙunshi ta hanyar ƙarfafa halayyar batun wanda a hankali yake kusanci da martanin da za'a iya samu (alal misali, sannu a hankali ya kawo dabba don danna ɗan lever) (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Canjin hankali: [neuropsychology] ftaurawar kulawa ta hankali daga abu ɗaya, ko aukuwa, zuwa wani, duka biyu sun ƙunshi yanayin da ke kewaye da batun (Marzocchi, Molin, Poli, Hankali da Metacognition, 2002: 12).

Cerebellar Cognitive-Affective Syndrome: [neuropsychology] shine mawuyacin fahimta da raunin tasirin sakamako wanda ya haifar da raunin cerebellum. Ficarancin na iya zama da yawa kuma suna da yawa ga bangarori da yawa kamar ƙwaƙwalwar aiki, harshe, ayyukan zartarwa, bayyanannu da tsarin ilmantarwa, aiki mai cike da kulawa, sarrafa hankali, tasiri da kuma halayyar ɗabi'a (Schmahmann, A cerebellum da cognition, 2018).

Cutar cirewar cuta: [neuropsychology] sauye-sauye masu fahimi wadanda suka danganci cutarwar farin kaya wanda ke haɗa bangarorin kwakwalwa daban-daban (duba kuma duba) Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Balint Holmes ciwo: [neuropsychology] cututtukan neuropsychological wanda aka kwatanta da simultanagnosia (kasawa a cikin bayyanar hoto na duniya lokacin da yake tattare da abubuwa da yawa), oculomotor apraxia (kasawa da gangan ya jagoranci kallon zuwa aya) da optic ataxia (gaira a cikin motsi na nasara tare da liman). Wannan ciwo ana alaƙar haɗa shi da cututtukan gamaeto-occipital raunuka (duba kuma Ladàvas da Berti, Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014).

Tsarin Kulawa Mai Kulawa: Norman da Shallice sun tsara yanayin aiki tare da tsarin aiki guda biyu. A farkon lamari tsarin tsari ne na yau da kullun wanda yake wakilta nau'ikan halayen ilmantarwa masu yawa, waɗanda aka zaɓa don mayar da martani ga ƙaddamar da muhalli, gwargwadon matakin kunnawa ta atomatik; A cikin lamari na biyu, lokacin zaɓi na atomatik bai isa ya kunna takamaiman halayen ba ko irin wannan kunnawar ba ta aiki da takamaiman yanayin, Tsarin Mai Kula da Kulawa wanda ke sake fasalin gwagwarmayar halaye daban-daban don zaɓar wanda ya fi dacewa dangane da yanayin (duba kuma Mazzucchi, Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 2012).

Somatoagnosia: Rashin sanin yanayin jikin mutum (duba kuma.) Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001)

Sound: [harshe] Tsarin tsari: sauya sauti na kurma tare da sauti mai dacewa. Misali: "bane" na "gurasa" (cf. labarin mu akan Phonetics da Phonology).

Muhimmancin gwajin [ƙididdiga]: ikon gwajin don tantance batutuwa waɗanda ba su da takamaiman halaye (marasa tunani na ainihi), alal misali rashin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya. Ta wata hanyar, shi ne rabo na batutuwa waɗanda ta hanyar gwaji suna da mummunan tasiri ga halayyar idan aka kwatanta da duka abubuwan da ba su da shi; sake daukar misalin cutar dementia kuma, ƙayyadaddun abubuwa shine yawan abubuwan da suke da lafiya (ba tare da dementia ba) a cikin takamaiman gwajin, idan aka kwatanta da duka waɗanda suke lafiya.
Idan muka kira takamaiman S, A adadin sane daidai gwajin da aka gano (negative na gaskiya) da kuma B yawan sane da gwajin bai gano ba (tabbatattun ƙarya), to za a iya bayyani dalla-dalla azaman S = A / (A + B) .

sitiriyo: [ilimin halin dan adam] Kwatantawa ana maimaita maimaituwa daya ko fiye halaye. Zasu iya zama nau'ikan daban-daban: motar, a rubuce ko magana ta magana, cikin wasanni, zane, da sauransu. (duba kuma Galimberti, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2018).

Tsaya: [harshe] maye gurbin lambar ci gaba mai amfani da wacce ba ta ci gaba ba (Ex: dal per giallo) (cf. labarin mu akan Phonetics da Phonology).

subitizing: [neuropsychology] ikon hanzarta kuma daidai rarrabe karamin adadin abubuwan abubuwa (Kaufman et al., Bambancin lambar gani, 1949).

Sulcus glottidis: rauni [murya] raunin da lalacewa ta mucosa na murhun muryar da ke haifar da jaka da ke shiga cikin sararin Reinke. An yi imanin cewa ya faru ne sakamakon buɗewar wani abu a cikin farkon lokacin rayuwa (cf. Albera da Rossi, Otolaryngology, 2018: 251).

T

Ka'idar Fahimtar Karatu Na Ilmantarwa Na Fasaha ko CTM: Ilmantarwa [ilmantarwa] wanda ke haskakawa kasancewar tashoshi biyu na ilmantarwa, kallo daya da duba daya, kowannensu yana da iyakataccen aiki (abubuwa 3 ko 4 a lokaci guda). Za'a iya sarrafa ƙarin bayanai daban-daban, sabili da haka koya, idan aka rarrabu akan tashoshi biyu (na gani da duba) maimakon akan tashoshi ɗaya (alal misali, rubutu da hotuna); ana kiran wannan tasirin yanayin.
Idan, a gefe guda, muna samar da irin wannan bayanin a cikin hanya mai ma'ana a kan tashoshi da yawa (na gani da duba) maimakon ɗaya kawai (misali, auditory), wannan ka'idar tana ƙaddara lalacewa a cikin aikin da aka danganta da yawan nauyin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar aiki; wannan ana kiransa sakamako na sakewa (duba kuma) Mayer da Fiorella, Ka'idoji don Rage Tsara Tsara a cikin Karatun Multimedia: Hadin kai, Alamar, Maimaitawa, Tsarin sarari, da ciplesa'idojin Sauke Lokaci, 2014)

Tattalin Arziki na Token (Tsarin Karfafawa Token): [ilimin halin dan Adam, halayyar] halayyar dan adam wanda ya kunshi zartar da "kwangila" tsakanin wani batun da iyayen sa ko mai koyar da shi, ta hanyar da yake kafa dokoki; sai a ba da alama ta alama (ko alama) don kowane halayen halayen da waɗannan sharuɗan ke buƙata, yayin da za a cire kowane alama ko kuma ba za a bayar da ƙima ɗaya ba. Bayan sun kai adadin da aka ƙaddara, waɗannan za a canza su zuwa kari da aka amince da su (duba kuma Rikicin da Spagnoletti, Yara masu rashin kulawa da rashin hankali: Horar Iyaye, 2013).

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tushe: digiri [psychometry] wanda wani kayan aiki (gwaji) a zahiri yana auna canjin ban sha'awa. Ya ƙunshi da farko na ingancin abun ciki, ingancin cancanta da kuma ingancin inganci (duba kuma Isticsididdiga na Kimiyyar halayyar ɗabi'a, Welkowitz, Cohen da Ewen, 2009).

Darajar annabta ba ta dace ba: [ƙididdiga] yiwuwar gwaji na ƙididdigar gwaji don kimanta adadin abubuwan da aka bayyana daidai ba samun halayyar (rashin gaskiya ta gaskiya) dangane da jimlar waɗancan da ba su dace da irin wannan halayyar ba. Misali, idan muka kasance a gaban gwaji don gano batutuwa na aphasic, ƙimar tsinkayar mummunan zata zama rabo tsakanin batutuwa masu ƙoshin lafiya waɗanda aka tantance daidai ta hanyar gwajin dangane da jimlar lafiya da ƙari na asasin da ke da kyau a cikin gwajin (na gaske lafiya + aphasic) ba daidai ba a matsayin mai lafiya).
Idan muka kira VPN mara kyau na tsinkayar ƙimar, A jimlar tabbatattun ƙayyadaddun batutuwa da ƙididdigar yawan Bishiyoyi marasa daidaituwa a matsayin aphasic to muna iya bayyana ƙaddarar darajar marasa kyau kamar haka: VPN = A / (A + B).

Ingantaccen darajar tsinkaye: [ƙididdigar] yiwuwar gwaji na ƙarshe na gwaji don kimanta rabo na abubuwan da aka gano daidai da kasancewa halayyar halayyar gaskiya (tabbatacciyar gaskiya) dangane da wadatattun waɗanda ke da halayyar wannan halayyar ɗaya (tabbatattun gaskiya + tabbatattun ƙarya). Misali, idan muka kasance a gaban gwaji don gano batutuwa na aphasic, ingantacciyar darajar tsinkaye zata zama rabo tsakanin kwastomomi wadanda aka gano daidai ta hanyar gwajin idan aka kwatanta da jimlar aphasics da wadanda basu dace ba don gwajin (gaskiya aphasics da lafiya bincikar lafiya ba daidai ba kamar yadda aphasic).
Idan muka kira VPP kyakkyawar ƙaddara mai ƙimar inganci, Adadin abubuwan da aka gano daidai kuma B wadatattun batutuwa masu ƙoshin lafiya ba daidai ba azaman asirinsu sannan zamu iya bayyana ƙimar tsinkaye kamar haka: VPP = A / (A + B).

Ishingirƙirare lambobi (Hanyar rage shawarwari): [tsarin karatun ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa] wanda aka mayar da hankali kan raguwar ci gaba na shawarwari game da bayanan da za a iya tunawa, bayan tsarin ilmantarwa guda (duba kuma Glisky, Schacter da Tulving, Koyo da kuma riƙe kalmomin da ke da alaƙa da kwamfuta a cikin marasa lafiya masu fama da ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa: Hanyar ɓacewa, 1986).

sãɓã wa jũna: [ƙididdiga] gwargwadon yawan bambance bambancen sigogin da suke da ma'anarsu; auna yadda wadannan dabi'un suke karkatar da shi kwatankwacin ma'ana ilmin lissafi (duba kuma Rikicin da Spagnoletti, Yara masu rashin kulawa da rashin hankali: Horar Iyaye, 2013).

vergeture: (muryar) bacin rai na madaidaicin murfin murfin magana tare da mannewar mucosa zuwa ga sautin muryar (cf. Albera da Rossi, Otolaryngology, 2018: 251)

Fara bugawa kuma latsa Shigar don bincika