Take: tsufa mai aiki: horo don tallafawa aiki na hankali ga tsofaffi

Mawallafa: Rossana De Beni, Michela Zavagnin, Erika Borella

Shekara: 2020

M: Erickson

Jigo

Horar da hankali shine, a ma'anarsa, haɓaka haɓaka haɓakawa wanda ake nufi da mutanen da suka tsufa, da nufin haɓaka aiki a rayuwar yau da kullun. Bai wa girma tsufa na yawan jama'a, wallafe-wallafe a cikin kwararrun wallafe-wallafe akan wannan batun suna ƙaruwa koyaushe (Hudes, Rich, Troyer et al., 2019).

A cikin littafin Panorama na Italiyanci, an buga littattafai da yawa da nufin masu aiki don tsara tsoma bakin hankali mai hankali mutum yana nufin tsofaffi tare da ƙarancin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya (Andreani Dentici, Amoretti da Cavallini, 2004) ko kuma ga mutumin da ke da tabin hankali (Bergamaschi, Iannizzi, Mondini, et al. 2007).

Descrizione

Kamar yadda ake tsammani ta subtitle, horo ne wanda aka haɓaka don tsofaffi tare da hankula tsufa o Manƙancin Rashin hankali (MCI), za'ayi su cikin rukuni-rukuni.


Bayan wani ɓangaren gabatarwa, wanda a taƙaice yayi bayanin abin da horon haɓakawa ya ƙunsa, an kwatanta yadda nau'ikan nau'ikan horo guda uku da aka gabatar a cikin juzu'in an tsara su: ƙwarewa, dabarun aiki da horar da ƙwaƙwalwar aiki. Akwai kuma nau’i na hudu wanda ya hada wadanda suka gabata (hade).

Bari mu gansu a takaice daya bayan daya.

Yana bayyana kanta metacognitive wannan horon da ke aiki akan imanin da ke tattare da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da ƙwarewar kulawa da kai. A cikin irin wannan kwas ɗin ana ba mahalarta bayanai game da tsufa na ilimin lissafi, tsarin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da ma'amala tsakanin hanyoyin fahimta da motsin rai. Manufar shine a ƙara yin tunani game da imanin kowane mutum wanda ke tushen aikin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da kuma dabarun da aka ɗauka kai tsaye don haddace kayan, sa ido kan tasirin su.

A cikin dabarun horo Za a koyar da mahalarta dabarun mnemonic, wato dabarun da aka yi amfani da su fiye da ƙasa da hankali don sauƙaƙe lambar sirri da kuma tunatar da kayan da za a haddace (Gross & Rebok, 2011). Dabaru masu amfani zasu iya zama rarrabasu (hada bayanai ko rarrabasuwa), hada kai da hoton hankali (hoto ko gani), ko kirkirar labarai masu dauke da kalmomin manufa. A yawancin karatun, ana amfani da dabaru da yawa tare, a ɗauka cewa horon da ya haɗu da dabaru da yawa na iya zama mafi tasiri a rayuwar yau da kullun (Gross, Parisi, Spira et al., 2012). Bugu da ƙari, a cikin aikin likita, ana amfani da maganganu guda biyu (tsinkaye da dabarun aiki) a hade.

A ƙarshe, a cikin aiki ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya Ana ba wa mahalarta jerin maganganu na magana (misali kalmomi) da kayan gani (misali matsayi a cikin matrix), a lokacin da aka ayyana lokaci-lokaci, don sabunta su cikin ƙwaƙwalwa daga lokaci zuwa lokaci, bayan haka suna neman dawo da daidaitattun manufofi tare da buƙatun ɗawainiyar (misali "menene kalma ta ƙarshe zuwa ta ƙarshe da kuka ji?"). Yawancin lokaci ana gabatar da wannan shiga ta hanyoyi daban-daban, amma akwai gogewa (Borella, 2010) da aka samu a ƙungiyoyi. A cikin horon da aka gabatar a cikin juzu'in, mahalarta suna sauraron jerin kalmomi kuma ana tambayarsu su samar da wani amsa yayin da suka ji sunan wani abin motsawa wanda yake daga rukunin abin da aka sa gaba (misali, dabbobi). A ƙarshen gabatarwar jerin sunayen dole ne su tuna abubuwan ci gaban da aka gabatar a cikin tsari daidai.

Kowane horo da aka gabatar a cikin ƙarar ya haɗa da zaman 5. Kowane zama yana zuwa da ɗan gajeren motsa jiki hankali: a cikin niyyar marubuta, wannan shawarar na iya samun sakamako mai kyau kan maida hankali.

Thearar kuma ta haɗa da faɗaɗa kan layi, tare da buga takardu da katunan cirewa, don gina littattafan motsa jiki da za a isar wa mahalarta kamar aikin gida tsakanin zama.

Pro

  • Shine kawai littafin da ake samu a halin yanzu a cikin Italiyanci don ba da takamaiman horo don ƙwaƙwalwar aiki tare da manufa ga tsofaffi.
  • Littattafan suna nuna yadda hadewar dabarun da dabarun motsa jiki ya fi tasiri fiye da amfani da horo guda daya: a wannan ma'anar hadadden horo, kamar wanda aka gabatar a littafin, zai iya zama mai amfani fiye da horo guda daya.

Ayoyi

  • Kowane horo ana haɓaka shi ne a cikin zama biyar kawai, lambar da ta bayyana ƙarami kaɗan don tsammanin tasirin tasiri tare da haɓakawa a rayuwar yau da kullun.
  • Ilimin horo yana gabatar da jerin kalmomi da nassoshi azaman kayan aiki. Don ƙarin fa'ida a rayuwar yau da kullun, tabbas zai zama mai hikima don gabatar da jerin kalmomin muhalli (alal misali, jerin cin kasuwa) da kuma aiki akan ƙwaƙwalwar hangen nesa. Mun san cewa matsaloli a cikin ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya suna daga cikin ƙararraki na yau da kullun game da tsofaffi na al'ada (Mc Daniel & Bugg, 2012). A hakikanin gaskiya, kaso mai tsoka na bayanan da ake kira kowa ya haddace kowace rana ya shafi wannan nau'in ƙwaƙwalwar: sabili da haka aiki ne mai matukar tasiri da tasiri a rayuwar yau da kullun.

karshe

Wannan sabon kundi sadaukar domin fahimi ruri "Tsufa mai aiki: horarwa don tallafawa aikin haɓaka cikin tsofaffi”Zai iya zama da amfani ga mai gyara don tsara horon da aka mai da hankali kan ƙwaƙwalwar aiki da / ko don haɓaka amfani da dabaru don haddace bayanai a cikin rayuwar yau da kullun. An rage horon a cikin zaman (biyar a kowane nau'i) da kuma cikin nau'ikan atisaye, amma ayyukan da aka gabatar zasu iya zama tushe mai amfani don tsara babban horo.

Bibliography

Andreani Dentici, O., Amoretti, G. & Cavallini, E. (2004). Memorywazon tsofaffi: jagora don kiyaye shi yadda ya kamata. Erickson, Trento

Bergamaschi, S., Iannizzi, P., Mondini, S. & Mapelli, D. (2007). Dementia: 100 motsa jiki motsa jiki motsa jiki. Raffaello Cortina Madaba'ar, Milan.

Borella, E., Carretti, B., Riboldi, F. & De Beni, R. (2010). Horar da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya a cikin tsofaffi: shaidar canjin wuri da tasirin kiyayewa. Ilimin halin dan Adam da tsufa, 25 (4), 767-778.

De Beni, R., Zavagnin, M. & Borella, E. (2020). Tsufa mai aiki: horarwa don tallafawa aikin haɓaka cikin tsofaffi. Erickson, Trento.

Babban, AL, Parisi, J., M., Spira, AP, Kueoder, A., Ko, JY, Saczynski, JS et al (2012). Horar da ƙwaƙwalwa ga tsofaffi: meta-bincike. Tsufa da Lafiyar hankali, 16 (6), 722-734.

Babban & Rebok (2011). Horar da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da dabarun amfani da tsofaffi: sakamako daga binciken aiki. Ilimin halin dan Adam da tsufa, 26 (3), 503-517.

Hudes, R., Rich, JB, Troyer, AK, Yusupov, I. & Vandermorris, S. (2019). Tasirin tsoma baki kan dabarun bada horo kan sakamako game da sakamakon da aka samu a cikin tsofaffi masu lafiya: nazari na yau da kullun da zane-zane. Ilimin halin dan Adam da tsufa, 34 (4), 587 - 597.

Mc Daniel, MA & Bugg, JM (2012) Tsoma bakin horo kan ƙwaƙwalwa: menene aka manta? Journal of aiyuka Bincike a Memory da Cognition, 1 (1), 58-60.

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