Sunaye da gwaje-gwaje masu yawa [1] da yawa suna amfani da hotuna azaman tallafi don haɓaka kalma da samar da jumla. Sauran gwaje-gwaje suna amfani da abubuwa na zahiri. Me ya sa? Manyan ra'ayoyin da aka yarda dasu akan sarrafa harshe sun yarda akan wanzuwar cibiyar ma'ana guda (a zahiri, zai zama babu tattalin arziki idan anyi tunanin cewa akwai wata cibiyar ma'ana don hotunan da muke gani da kuma wani don kalmomin da muke ji), amma a lokaci guda basu yarda cewa hanyoyin shiga daban suna samunsu da hanya ɗaya ba sauƙi.

 

Ga wasu yana iya zama ba komai, alal misali, cewa hoton guduma na iya ba da tabbacin saurin shiga halaye na guduma fiye da kalmar "guduma" (na biyun, kamar dukkan kalmomin a cikin harshenmu, ba da son rai ba); duk da haka, za a iya kai mu ga tunanin duka hoton guduma da kalmar "guduma" alloli ne kawai samun dama ga ra'ayin guduma, sabili da haka ba tare da la'akari da tashar ba, ana amfani da halayen halayen kawai ta hanyar tunanin guduma. Wasu nazarin, gami da Tarihin maginin tukwane na shekarar 1975 [2] sun nuna cewa ba haka lamarin yake ba, kuma sun yi hakan ne ta hanyar nuna lokutan suna daban-daban gwargwadon tashar da aka yi amfani da ita.

 

Idan, a zahiri, daga shekara ta biyu ta makarantar firamare zuwa gaba, karanta kalma ta fi saurin sanya sunan ta hoto, hakan ma gaskiya ne cewa alaƙar wani abu (misali, tebur) zuwa ga wani rukuni, shine da sauri lokacin da aka gabatar da abun azaman hoto kuma ba azaman rubutacciyar kalma ba. Yawancin marubuta suna magana a cikin wannan ma'anar damar dama (haɗin kai tsaye tsakanin motsawa da ma'ana) e dan gata (haɗi tsakanin tsarin tsarin haɓaka da abubuwan alaƙa waɗanda aka haɗa da aikinta) na abubuwa - da hotuna - game da halaye na asali.


 

Mene ne damar samun dama wacce muke da hujja mafi yawa akan ta?

  1. Abubuwa suna da damar samun ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar tunani dangane da kalmomi [2]
  2. Kalmomi suna da damar samun damar amfani da yanayin magana idan aka kwatanta da hotuna [2]
  3. Musamman, a cikin dukkanin fannoni na ma'ana, abubuwa suna da damar samun damar aiwatar da aikin da za a yi [3]

 

A cikin 'yan shekarun nan, tare da fitowar ra'ayoyin "kunshi" (duba, a tsakanin wasu, Damasio) an yi ƙarin tsaftataccen gwaje-gwajen akan haɓakar motsa jiki wanda ya shafi abubuwan da muke amfani da su. A cikin wani binciken da aka yi kwanan nan [4] an nemi mutane su ba da amsa (ta hanyar motsa ɗan lever a gaba ko baya) bayan kallon hotuna, yanke shawara ko:

  • Gwaji A: anyi amfani da abun zuwa ga jiki (misali: buroshin hakori) ko kuma nesa da shi (misali: guduma)
  • Gwaji B: Abun da aka yi da hannu ko kuma na halitta ne

 

Mawallafa sun tafi kallo sakamakon haɗuwa, ko kuma idan mahalarta sun kasance masu saurin amsawa lokacin da aka samu cinkuduwa tsakanin nau'in abu da motsin lever (misali: buroshin hakori, ko abun da za'a yi amfani da shi a kaina - lever zuwa kasa). Idan, a farkon lamari, kasancewar an kusan ɗauka kasancewar tasirin haɗuwa ba da wasa ba, yana da ban sha'awa a lura da cewa, ko da a cikin gwajin B, inda tambayar ba ta da alaƙa da amfani ga kansa ko nesa da kansa, sakamakon haɗuwar shin ya faru ne dai. A wata ma'anar, hoton abin yana "kunna" aikin ta ɓoye koda kuwa tambayar da aka yi mana ba ta da alaƙa da amfani da ita.

 

Samun damar keɓaɓɓu, sabili da haka, alama alama ce mai ban mamaki wacce ba kawai ta shafi halayen gani na abu ba, amma har ila yau jikinmu da kuma yadda muke hulɗa da shi.

Bibliography

 

[1] Andrea Marini, Sara Andreetta, Silvana del Tin & Sergio Carlomagno (2011), Hanyar matakai da yawa don nazarin harshe mai magana a cikin aphasia, Aphasiology, 25:11,

 

[2] Tukwane, MC, Faulconer, B. (1975). Lokaci don fahimtar hotuna da kalmomi.Nature,253, 437-438.

 

[3] Chainay, H., Humphreys, GW Samun damar isa ga aiki don abubuwa dangane da kalmomi. Sanarwa na Psychonomic & Review 9, 348-355 (2002). 

 

[4] Scotto di Tella G, Ruotolo F, Ruggiero G, Iachini T, Bartolo A. Zuwa kuma nesa da jiki: Mahimmancin jagorancin amfani da shi a cikin lambobin abubuwan da suka shafi abu. Labari na Quarterly Journal of Psychology Psychology. 2021;74(7):1225-1233.

 

 

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