A -BC - D - E - F - G - I - L - M - O - P - QR - S - T - V

A

Gidajen murya: halin yin maganganun mutum da ƙari kwatankwacin halaye na murya na mai magana (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37).

Rashin lafiyar aphasia mai saurin magana: [aphasia] Aphasia halin ƙarancin samarwa, gajerun jimloli, magana mai wuya, rashin wadatar zuci; akwai yuwuwar akidar ilimin lissafi. Sharuddan bambance aaphasia wanda ya kware daga wanda ba ya iya magana shi ne: kasancewar maganganu na apraxia, tsayin jumla, yawan magana, kasantuwar agrammatism ko jargon da kuma ishara. Gabaɗaya, kasancewar lafazin magana na magana da tsawon jimlar ana yin la’akari da su gaba ɗaya: idan babu jumla da ta ƙunshi aƙalla kalmomi shida (aƙalla jumla ɗaya cikin goma) to gabaɗaya aphasia baya gudana (Basso, Sanin kuma sake ilimantarwaaphasia, 2009: 64).

Ciwon ciki: [aphasia] Maganar farko na abin da za'a kira daga baya aphasia, wanda Paul Broca ya tsara don ayyana waɗanda ba za su iya bayyana kansu da magana ba duk da cewa suna da kyakkyawar fahimta.


Zamani: [harshe] Tsarin aiki: maye gurbin sauti mai rikitarwa tare da mai amfani mai ma'ana. Misali: "cagia" don "gida" (cf. labarin mu akan Phonetics da Phonology)

Bincike Bambanci (ANOVA): [ƙididdigar, hanyar bincike] dabarar ƙididdigar ƙwaƙwalwa wanda ke ba ka damar kwatanta ƙungiyoyi daban-daban a cikin hanya ɗaya na gurɓatar da maganar rashin lalacewa, ta hanyar gwada bambanci tsakanin ƙungiyoyi da bambance-bambancen bazuwar (duba kuma duba) Bolzani da Canestrari, Logic na istididdigar Jarrabawar, 1995).

Anteriorization: [harshe] Tsarin aiki: sauya sauti na baya tare da na baya. Misali: "tasa" don "gida" (cf. labarin mu akan Phonetics da Phonology).

aposiopesis: [ilimin harshe] Katsarewar hukuncin jimlar da ba ta ci gaba ba. A matsayinsa na adadi na magana, yana nufin barin mai karatu ko mai sauraro yayi hasashen sauran jimlar. Game da aphasia, kodayake, galibi sakamako ne na rashin son ci gaba saboda matsaloli a cikin tsara jumla ko matsaloli wajen dawo da ajali.

Kuskure na koyo: [neuropsychology, ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya] dabarar haddacewa ta farko an haɓaka su ga marasa lafiya amnesic, wanda ya ƙunshi jagora da sauƙaƙe koyon bayanai don hana kuskure da kuma haddacewarsa a matakin bayyananne (duba kuma duba) Kuskuren Koyi a cikin Sakewar Hankali: Yin Bita mai Ciki, 2012. Mazzucchi, Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 2012).

Apraxia: [rikicewar kwakwalwa] rikicewar bayyanar motsi da aka koya, duka alamun yin amfani da abubuwa da kuma alamomin alama. Hakan ba sakamakon sauya tsarin motoci ba ne, rashi na ilimi, rashi na hankali ko kuma rashi a cikin ƙimar abubuwa (duba duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Akasarin Manufa: Kwayar halittar mahaifa game da amfani da abu (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Ferotonotor apraxia: Kwayar cutar mahaifa (neuropsychology) wadda take da sauƙin canza kwayoyi, duka marasa ma'ana (akan kwaikwayo) da alama (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001)

Acraxia mai aiki: nau'in apraxia wanda ke da alaƙa da ma'anar hoton kwayar halitta (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Aikin rigakafi: [cutar neurochochology] game da damar sanya sutura (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Apraxia daga cikin ganin: acraxia wanda ya shafi canjin motsin idanu (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Maris Apraxia: nau'in apraxia wanda ke haifar da rashin iya ɗaukar matakai (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Optic ataxia: [neuropsychology] gazawar daidaitaccen gani wanda ya shafi kaiwa kurakurai tare da gabar zuwa ga wani abu da aka gani. Yawanci yakan haifar da lalacewar kwakwalwa ga hanyar gani ta bayan fage. Ba ya dogara da gazawar gane abu don isa da fahimta, duk da haka hulɗa da shi a matakin mota yana da wahala (duba kuma Ladàvas da Berti, Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014).

yiwuwa (ko dogaro): [psychometry] mallakin kayan aikin aunawa (gwaji) wanda ke nuna irin ƙarfin kwanciyar hankali a yayin da aka maimaita matakan. Ta wata hanyar, yana nuna yadda amintaccen gwajin yake (duba kuma Weltkovitz, Cohen da Ewen, isticsididdigar Kimiyyar Halayyar Behavioral, 2009).

Zabi mai hankali: [neuropsychology, hankali] ɓangaren kulawa da ke da alaƙa da ikon rarraba albarkatun mai hankali akan ƙwarin gwiwa masu dacewa, rage tsangwama na abubuwan motsa jiki waɗanda suke ba amma ba su da mahimmanci ga ayyukan da za'ayi. Yankin zaɓi na zaɓa ya haɗa da mai da hankali, rarrabuwar rarrabuwa da juzu'i mai kulawa (Vallar et al., Maimaitawar Neuropsychological, 2012).

B

Karamin Harshen Bilingualism (ko Multilingualism): [harshe] lokacin da ake koyan yaruka biyu lokaci guda (duba Marini da shi Rashin harshe, 2014: 68)

Coordinated Bilingualism (ko kuma rarrabuwa): [harshe] lokacin da ake koyan yare biyu ko sama da haka kafin balaga amma ba cikin da'irar dangi (misali musayar) (duba Marini da shi Rashin harshe, 2014: 68)

Ordinarancin cika masaki biyu (ko kuma plurilingualism): [harshe] lokacin da ake amfani da yare ɗaya ko fiye ta amfani da yare na farko azaman matsakaici (duba) Marini da shi Rashin harshe, 2014: 68)

Barancin magana biyu na farko: [harshe] lokacin da yaro ya fallasa yaren na biyu bayan na farko, amma a kowane hali kafin ya cika shekara takwas (duba Marini da shi Rashin harshe, 2014: 68)

Atearshe mai cikakken magana biyu: [harshe] lokacin da yaro ya fallasa ga yare na biyu bayan na farko, amma bayan shekara takwas (duba) Marini da shi Rashin harshe, 2014: 68)

Yin magana a cikin harshe biyu na lokaci daya: [harshe] lokacin da yaron ya fallasa zuwa harsuna biyu daga farkon kwanakin rayuwarsa (duba Marini da shi Rashin harshe, 2014: 68)

C

Jumla mai ɗaukar magana (ko jumlar tallafi): jumlar da aka saba amfani da ita wacce za'a iya amfani da ita don fitar da takamaiman kalmomi (misali: "Don Allah a ba ni ...").

circumlocution: [ilimin harshe] Na yi amfani da "juyar juzu'i" don komawa zuwa kalmar da ba za a iya dawo da ita ba (sosai a cikin aphasia). Misali: "wanda za'a yanka gurasa" a ce "wuka".

Harshen iyawar rubutu: [koyo] ikon girmama dokoki da babban taron da ake gabatarwa a cikin yarenmu na yanzu wanda ke kawo canji game da canjin yare da aka saurara ko tunani a cikin harshen da aka nuna shi da harshe (Tressoldi da Cornoldi, 2000, Baturi don kimanta rubutu da ƙwarewar rubutu a Makarantar Wajibi)

Sadarwar Magancewa da Musanya (CAA): duk wata hanyar sadarwa wacce zata maye gurbin ko karin magana ta magana; yanki ne na aikin asibiti wanda ke neman ramawa saboda nakasa ta wucin gadi ko ta dindindin na mutane masu rikitarwa da buƙatun sadarwa (ASHA, 2005, wanda aka ambata a ciki Constantine, Gina littattafai da labarai tare da CAA, 2011: 54)

Conduites d'approche: [aphasia] yunƙurin kusanci kalmar ta hanyar farawa ta hanyar ƙarya ko fassarar magana. Misali: "la pa ... pasca, la pasma, la pastia ..." a ce "taliya" (duba misali Marini, Manunin Neurolinguistics, 2018: 143 e Mazzucchi, Juyin asibitin Neuropsychological, 2012)

confabulation: [neuropsychology] a cikin yanayin rikicewar ƙwaƙwalwar alama ce ta "tabbatacciya" wacce aka saita azaman samar da maganganu ko ayyukan da basu dace ba game da asalin batun ko abin da ya gabata, halin yanzu ko halin da zai zo nan gaba (Daga gemuG. (1993b). Hanyoyi daban-daban na rikicewabawo29567-581) - godiya ga Ilaria Zannoni

hulda: [ƙididdigar, hanyar bincike] ƙungiyar tsakanin masu canji guda biyu kamar cewa zuwa bambancin ɗayan ya dace da bambancin ɗayan. Yawancin masu canji guda biyu suna da alaƙa, mafi ƙarfi hulɗa zai kasance. Daidaitar ta bambanta tsakanin maki 1 (kamar yadda sau ɗaya yake ƙaruwa, akai ta ƙaruwa mai girma) da -1 (yayin da sau ɗaya ke ƙaruwa, akwai raguwa na ɗayan na lokaci; tare da kashi 0, akwai a maimakon haka) duka rashi daidai tsakanin masu canji biyu.
Kasancewar tana da dangantaka, kodayake mai ƙarfi, baya nuna alamar caji tsakanin masu canji guda biyu (duba kuma Welkowits, Cohen da Ewen, Isticsididdiga na Kimiyyar Halayyar ɗabi'a, 2009).

Cinging: [aphasia] ƙarancin, wayar salula da / ko shawara mai zurfi, da aka bayar idan mai haƙuri ba zai iya dawo da kalmar manufa da kansa ba (duba, alal misali, Conroy et al., Amfani da kiran waya na sanannu ta hanyar bada lamuni don hango hasashen abun da za'aji don magance cutar rashin lafiyan dake cikin aphasia, 2012)

D

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] hanawar isowar jijiyoyi ga tsarin manufa. Wannan na faruwa ne ta hanyar rauni na neurons waɗanda suke asalin asalin axons ɗin da suka kai gaɓar mahallin, ko kuma rauni na axon kansu (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Rashin hankali: [neuropsychology] wani nau'in sassauci na rashin hankali (duba duba rashi na hankali ko raunin tunani), wanda ya shahara sosai da ƙarfin ilimin haɓaka (IQ tsakanin 70 da 50), wahala a cikin daidaitawar jama'a da bayyanar rashi a lokacin haɓaka.

deafferentation: [neuroanatomy] hanawar isowar jijiyoyi ga tsarin manufa. Wannan na faruwa ne ta hanyar rauni na neurons waɗanda suke asalin asalin axons ɗin da suka kai gaɓar mahallin, ko kuma rauni na axon kansu (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Enarfin Neuronal: [neuroscience] asarar ci gaba na takamaiman tsari da aikin wani sabo ko rukuni na neurons wanda zai haifar da bacewarsu (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

muffling: [harshe] Tsarin aiki: sauya sauti mai saƙo tare da kurma. Misali: "panana" don "ayaba" (cf. labarin mu akan Phonetics da Phonology)

Tabbatacciyar daidaituwa (ma'ana karkatar da fili): [ƙididdiga] kimantawa game da canji na saitin bayanai, wanda aka samo daga tushen murabba'in bambancin. Yana nunawa nawa bayanan ke watsuwa a tsakani (kamar yadda suke karkata akan matsakaici daga gareshi) amma, sabanin bambanci, ana bayyana wannan sigogi a sashi na ma'auni kamar matsakaici (duba kuma duba) Welkowits, Cohen da Ewen, Isticsididdiga na Kimiyyar Halayyar ɗabi'a, 2009).

dysgraphia: [koyo] rubuce-rubuce cikin wahala, ba tare da wannan an danganta shi da cuta ta jijiyoyin jiki ba ko iyakancewar ilimi (Ajuriaguerra et al., L'écriture de l'enfant. 1 °. L'evolution del'écriture et ses difficultés, 1979 cit a ciki Di Brina et al., BHK, 2010)

Dyspraxia: Rashin lafiya [neuropsychology] wanda ke shafar gaskiyar halayen motsi, musamman waɗanda aka lura a daidai lokacin kwaikwayon. Bai dogara da kasawar tsarin abin hawa ba, matsalar ilimi ko kuma kasawar hankali. Ya bambanta da cutar birrai saboda kalmar dyspraxia tana nufin cuta da aka lura yayin haɓaka (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Maganar dyspraxia: [harshe] Damuwa ta tsakiya a cikin shirye-shirye da kuma fahimtar motsi iri-iri wanda yakamata don samar da sauti, karafa da kalmomi sannan kuma ga tsarin su (Chilosis da Cerri, Verbal dyspraxia, 2009 VD. kuma Sabbadini, Dyspraxia a cikin shekarun haɓakawa: ƙimantawa da ka'idojin shiga tsakani, 2005)

Rashin harshe na harshe na harshe na harshe: [harshe] kowane rashin cancantar yare wanda ke faruwa yayin haɓaka, tare da kusanci ko imarancin alama ta harshen kansa, a cikin abubuwan da suke da ɗaya ko fiye na hanyoyin da ke biye: ramuwar sani, haɓaka (ɓarna) rikicewar haɓaka, mummunar cuta na aikin dubawa, rashin jin daɗin rayuwa mai mahimmanci (Gilardone, Casetta, Luciani, Yaron da ke fama da matsalar magana. Maganar kimantawa da magani, Cortina, Turin 2008).

Kashili mai kwakwalwa: [neuropsychology] yaduwar ɗayan jijiya guda a kan ɗayan ta hanyar kulawa da hankali ko aikin motsa jiki; sabili da haka shine tushen rushewar ƙwaƙwalwar zuciya. Misalai sune yare, yawanci tare da haguwar iko hagu, da kuma hanyoyin zuzzurfan tunani, tare da madaidaicin ikon hauka Habib, Hemispheric Dominance, 2009, EMC - Neurology, 9, 1-13)

E

ecolalia: [harshe] Maimaita kalmomi ko jumlar saurara, ba tare da fahimtar su ba. Yana faruwa a ilimin dabbobi a yara musamman a shekaru 2-3 (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 37) da kuma ilimin dabbobi a cikin manya, alal misali a cikin Parkinson's.

Sakamakon tsammanin: [hanyar bincike] canza sakamakon bincike saboda tsammanin sakamakon da mai binciken ya kula da shi ko kuma batutuwa na gwaji kansu. Masanin halayyar dan adam Robert Rosenthal ne ya fara bayyana shi wanda ake kiran sa a wasu yanayi Tasirin Rosenthal (ko ma Tasirin Pygmalion o annabcin kai mai cika kai). Yanada matukar mahimmanci muyi laakari da shi a cikin bincike inda tasirin ɗan adam shine abin tantancewa kuma saboda wannan dalilin ana kiran wannan tasirin a matsayin wani muhimmin abu a cikin nazari akan tasirin jiyya waɗanda basa amfani da ƙungiyar sarrafawa mai aiki (watau a cikin magani ko madadin na gwaji) ko waɗanda basa amfani da kowane rukuni.

Tasirin Yanayi: [koyo] gani Ka'idar Fahimtar Ilimin Koyon Labarai Da yawa

Tasirin Pygmalion: vedi Tasirin tsammanin

Fassarar placebo: [ilimin halin dan adam, magani] ingantawa ta hanyar ba da magani ba tare da takamaiman sakamako ba kuma an haɗa shi maimakon amintaccen da aka sanya a cikin maganin kanta. Wannan tasirin, kamar wancan gaTasirin tsammanin, galibi yana zama cikas ga bincike game da tasirin jiyya kuma ana amfani da shi ta hanyar amfani da rukunin batutuwa, wanda ake kira nasu kungiyoyi masu sarrafawa, waɗanda ba a basu magani ko ana ba su na karya ba

Sakamakon rashin aiki: [koyo] gani Ka'idar Haɓakawa ta Ilimin Multimodal

Tasirin Rosenthal: vedi Tasirin tsammanin

hemianopia: [neuropsychology] asarar hangen nesa a cikin rabin filin hangen nesa (ko na hudu quadrant a yanayin sa quadrantanopia) a sakamakon raunuka na gani na gani mai narkewa, fili mai narkewa, radadin gani ko kayan gani na gani (duba kuma Ladàvas da Berti, Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014)

Spinal emineglige (duba Nemo)

bayani: [harshe] gwargwadon ma'aunin da aka yi amfani da shi, ana iya bayyana shi da "fitarwa ta sauti tsakanin dakatarwa biyu da ake iya hangowa (cikakke ko fanko) tsawan aƙalla sakan biyu" (acoustic criterion), "homogeneous conceptual block, or a simple or complex proposition" ( ma'anar ma'auni), “babban jumla wanda ke biyo bayan jerin ingantattun na sakandare daga mahangar ilimin nahawu” (ma'aunin nahawu). (Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 69)

Kuskuren Na Buga: [psychometrics] don ƙin yarda da hasashen banza lokacin da yake gaskiya.
Misali: mai bincike yayi tunanin cewa sabon maganin magana yana inganta fannonin ilimin sauti fiye da magani na yau da kullun; bayan da aka ƙaddamar da batun don tabbatar da gwaji, sai ya ƙi H0 (watau cewa maganin biyu sun yi daidai) kuma ya yarda da H1 (watau cewa sabon magani ya fi kyau) amma a zahiri magungunan biyu suna ba da sakamako iri ɗaya kuma bambancin da aka samo suna da alaƙa da kurakurai na hanya ko tasirin kwatsam (duba kuma Weltkovitz, Cohen da Ewen, isticsididdigar Kimiyyar Halayyar Behavioral, 2009).

Kuskuren nau'in II: [psychometrics] yarda da zancen banza lokacin da yake karya ne.
Misali: mai bincike yayi tunanin cewa sabon maganin magana yana inganta fannonin ilimin sauti fiye da magani na yau da kullun; bayan ya gwada jarabawar ta gwaji, sai ya yarda da H0 (watau cewa maganin biyu sun yi daidai) kuma ya ƙi H1 (watau sabon maganin ya fi kyau) amma a zahiri magungunan biyu suna ba da sakamako daban-daban. Rashin sakamako a wannan yanayin, a gefe guda, zai dogara ne da kurakurai na hanya, ƙananan ƙididdigar sakamako saboda dama, ko kuma saboda ƙarancin ƙarfin gwajin lissafi (duba kuma Weltkovitz, Cohen da Ewen, isticsididdigar Kimiyyar Halayyar Behavioral, 2009).

F

Abubuwa masu ilmin lissafi: [ilmin lissafi] Sakamakon tsarin ilimin lissafi ne wanda bai kamata a kirga shi ba, amma an riga an mallaka dashi a ƙwaƙwalwa. Misali teburin maimaituwa da mahimmin kuɗi da ƙananan abubuwa. (Poli, Molin, Lucangeli da Cornoldi, Memocalculation, 2006: 8)

Mai tacewa: [aphasia] cikakken dakatarwa wanda aka kirkira ta sautuna, sautunan murya, ƙaramar magana ko gutsuttsarin kalmomi. Ana samun su galibi cikin ƙaryar farawa. "Ko dai yau kyakkyawan rana ne" (gwama misali Marini, Manunin Neurolinguistics, 2018: 143)

phonology: [ilimin harshe] Horon da ke nazarin ƙwarewar magana da mai magana ke da shi game da yaren mahaifinta, wannan shine tsarin da ke haɓaka a farkon shekarun rayuwar ɗan adam kuma a cikin sa ake samun bambanci tsakanin sautunan da ke rarrabe ma'anoni da sautukan da kada ku rarrabe su (- Nespor, phonology, 1993: 17)

Magana mai launi: [yare] Hanyar da ke haɗa launi daban-daban ga kowane ɓangaren jumla (labarin, batun, fi'ili…). Ana iya amfani da shi duka don jimloli rubutattu da waɗanda aka yi da hoto (duba, misali, AA VV, De Filippis jawabin ba da ladabi, 2006).

Fasaha: [harshe] Tsarin aiki: maye gurbin sauti mara kyau ko mai ma'ana tare da abin magana. Misali: "fasso" don "gaskiya" (cf. labarin mu akan Phonetics da Phonology)

Functors: [ilimin harshe] vd. Buɗe da rufe kalmomin aji

Ayyukan zartarwa: [neuropsychology] hadaddun tsarin kulawa da hankali don tsarawa da sarrafawa na halaye, da mahimmanci a cikin ayyukan da ba na sarrafa kansa ba wanda ke buƙatar kulawa mai mahimmanci (duba kuma labarin mu game da ayyukan zartarwa; Grossi da Trojano, Neuropsychology na Frontal Lobes, 2013).

G

gliding: [harshe] Tsarin aiki: sauya baƙi tare da semiconsonant. Misali: "foia" don "ganye" (cf. labarin mu akan Phonetics da Phonology)

Alamar batir: wani nau'in ishara ne wanda hannaye ke motsawa daga sama zuwa ƙasa don alamar sigar kalma ko kalmomin jumla (akan aikin isharar gani. Asali na maganin magana a cikin girma, p. 234)

Ciki rauni Brain mai tsanani:: 8 na fiye da awanni 24), da kuma firikwensin ƙwaƙwalwa, rashin hankali ko halayyar ɗabi'a, wanda ya ƙunshi tsananin nakasa (cf. Taron Yarjejeniyar: Kyakkyawar linabi'a Asibitin Asibitin Gyara mutanen da ke da Ciwon Mara Lafiya).

Rukunin Kulawa: [hanyar bincike] a cikin bincike wanda a ciki yayi nazarin tasirin canji mai zaman kanta akan rukunin batutuwa, alal misali magani, ana samun mafi yawan samfuran a cikin ƙananan rukuni biyu: ƙungiyar gwaji, wacce ke karɓar magani a ƙarƙashin bincike (m mai zaman kanta), da controlungiyar sarrafawa, wanda maimakon hakan ba ta karɓar wani magani ko karɓar wani madadin (saboda haka ba a ƙarƙashin rinjayar m mai zaman kanta). Controlungiyar sarrafawa ita ce wacce aka kwatanta tasirin magani akan ƙungiyar gwaji don rage tasirin wasu nuna bambanci (duba kuma Ercolani, Areni da Mannetti, Bincike A Cikin Ilimin Hauka, 1990).

I

Nauyin-Motar shiga cikin mota: [neuropsychology, multiple sclerosis] sabon abu wanda ake lura dashi yayin aiwatar da aiki na lokaci ɗaya (misali tafiya) da kuma aiki na fahimi (misali faɗin duk kalmomin da zasu fara da takamaiman harafi); a cikin waɗannan yanayi yana yiwuwa a ga raguwar aikin motsa jiki, sani ko duka biyun. Ana yin nazarin tsangwama-motsa hankali musamman a cikin mahallin cutar sclerosis da yawa kamar yadda yake faruwa sau da yawa kuma mafi mahimmanci fiye da yawan masu lafiya (duba Ruggieri et al., 2018, Taswirar cuta ta Lesion alamar tsinkaye-bayan jijiya a cikin sclerosis da yawa).

Hadin kai-da-kai: [neuropsychology] sabon abu wanda ya kunshi hada bayanai masu zuwa daga tashoshi daban-daban na azanci zuwa fahimta daya. Mafi dacewa, fahimta ce wacce ta haɗa da ma'amala tsakanin yanayin yanayin jijiyoyi guda biyu ko fiye (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crossmodal).

Tsarin Amincewa: [psychometry] yanki ne na ƙimomi tsakanin iyakoki biyu (ƙasa da babba) wanda a ciki, tare da wataƙila yiwuwar (matakin amincewa), ana samun wani ma'auni.
Misali: idan bayan gudanar da WAIS-IV wani IQ na 102 ya fito tare da tazarar amincewa ta 95% tsakanin 97 da 107, wannan yana nufin cewa a yiwuwar kashi 95% IQ na "gaskiya" na mutumin da aka bincika shine ƙimar tsakanin 97 da 107 (duba kuma Weltkovitz, Cohen da Ewen, isticsididdigar Kimiyyar Halayyar Behavioral, 2009).

Madadin maganganu: [psychometry] kuma ya nuna tare da H1. a bangaren bincike shi ne zato da mai binciken ya tsara kuma wanda muke son mu gwada.
Idan, alal misali, mai binciken ya gamsu da cewa madadin magani yana ba da sakamako daban-daban daga magani na yau da kullun, H1 zai wakilci wanzuwar wannan bambanci tsakanin hanyoyin daban-daban.
Hakanan an bayyana shi azaman wanda ra'ayin azanci ya zama ƙarya, kuma yana ƙididdige ƙimomin don ƙimar fa'idar sha'awa (duba kuma Weltkovitz, Cohen da Ewen, isticsididdigar Kimiyyar Halayyar Behavioral, 2009).

Magana mara kyau: [psychometry] kuma ya nuna tare da H0, a fagen bincike yana nufin hasashen da aka yi imani da shi na gaskiya ne idan babu wata shaidar akasi da za ta iya musanta shi.
Idan, misali, an yi niyya don nuna cewa magani ɗaya ya fi tasiri fiye da wani, H0 zai wakilci ra'ayin cewa babu wani bambanci tsakanin jiyya biyu.
Hakanan ana ayyana shi azaman wanda aka ƙaddamar da kimar sigogi a cikin alƙarya ko bambancin da aka sa ran (wanda galibi yayi dace da sifilin) ​​tsakanin sigogin alkaluman mutanen biyu (duba kuma duba) Weltkovitz, Cohen da Ewen, isticsididdigar Kimiyyar Halayyar Behavioral, 2009).

L

Matsakaicin Tsawon Bayanin (LME): [harshe] Wanda aka gabatar da Brown a cikin 1973, ma'anar Ma'anar Tsawon Jumla yana nuna matsakaicin kalmomi ko morphemes da mai magana ya gabatar akan samfurin - galibi - na jimloli 100 (duba Jumla). Yana ɗayan alamun ilimin ƙwarewa a cikin samarwa (duba, Brown, Harshe Na Farko, 1973).

M

Tsarin Tasiri: [aphasia] Tsinkaya bisa ga yadda marassa lafiyar jiki, yayin ci gaba da iya aiki mai kyau, suna da wahala wajen sanya maudu'in jigogin jumlar ga tsarin muhawara na fi'ili (cf. Boscarato da Modena a Flosi, Charlemagne da Rossetto, Ldon gyara mutum da cutar ta aphasia, 2013: 57)

Maganin Melodic Intonation (MIT): [aphasia] tsarin kula da gyaran aphasia wanda ke amfani da bangarorin karin magana na magana (karin waƙa da kari) ta hanyar raira waƙa (duba Norton et al., Melodic Intonation Therapy: Rarraba Hankali akan Yadda ake yin sa da Abinda yasa Dogara ya Taimako, 2009)

Memorywaƙwalwar aiki: [neuropsychology] Tsarin da zai baka damar adana bayanai na dan lokaci dan gudanar dashi ko sarrafa shi (cf. Baddeley da Hitch, Memorywaƙwalwar Aiki, 1974). Duba kuma labarin mu Mene ne ƙwaƙwalwar aiki.

Pectivewaƙwalwar hangen nesa: [neuropsychology] iya tuna yin wani abu bayan shirya shi (duba misali, Rouleau et al. Rashin ƙwaƙwalwar mai yiwuwa a cikin sclerosis da yawa: bita, 2017). Duba kuma labarinmu mai zurfi akan Memorywaƙwalwar hangen nesa a cikin ƙwayoyin cuta da yawa

Meta-bincike: [ƙididdigar] nau'ikan bincike na ƙididdiga waɗanda ke ba da izinin taƙaita sakamakon binciken daban-daban dangane da wannan jigo, ƙoƙarin rage tasirin sakamakon bambancin sakamakon binciken mutum, yana yin kowane tsari (duba kuma duba) Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Metacognition: magana game da wayewar kai game da ilimin mutum kuma, a lokaci guda, matakai da dabarun da ke tsara shi (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Metaphonology: iyawa don gwadawa, bangare kuma rarrabe kalmomin da aka gabatar da baki ta hanyar tsarin sihirinsu (Bishop & Snowling, Dyslexia na ci gaba da takamaiman lahani na harshe: iri ɗaya ne ko kuma daban?, Sanarwar Psychol 130 (6), 858-886, 2004)

tallan kayan kawa (duba Yanayi)

Eriirƙirari da ɗaukar hoto: kayan aikin asalin suna canza ma'anar gindi (misali cas + in + a); kawai hoto ne kawai ya canza nau'ikan kalmomi. Misali, jinsi ko lamba: cas + a (cf. Marini et al., BVL 4-12, 2015: 13)

N

Nemo: [neuropsychology] cututtukan neuropsychological, yawanci yakan haifar da raunin kwakwalwa, wanda ya ƙunshi rashi a cikin fahimtar sararin samaniya. Mutumin da yake gabatar da waɗannan alamu yana nuna wahalar bincika sararin yarjejeniya dangane da raunin kwakwalwa, ƙarancin sani game da abubuwan da suke gabatarwa a wani bangare na sararin samaniya (galibi a ciki), tsinkaye ko karin magana (duba ma labarinmu). Rashin Gani: gefen duhu na duniya)

Rashin kula da sarari na musamman (duba Nemo)

Jigilar madubi: [neuroscience] aji na ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta wanda aka kunna yayin da mutum yayi wani aiki da kuma lokacin da mutumin ya lura da aikin da wani batun yayi (https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroni_specchio)

O

holophrasis: [ilimin harshe] amfani da kalma ɗaya don bayani ko buƙata wacce zata buƙaci jimla gabaki ɗaya. Yana da mahimmanci na haɓaka harshe na farko a cikin yara. Ex: "cua" na "Ina son ruwa".

P

paraphasia: [aphasia] kalma da aka samar ba daidai ba game da manufa. Paraphasia na iya zama sauti (misali: "libbio" don "littafi") ko ma'anar ma'ana ("littafin rubutu" don "littafi"). (duba misali Marini, Manunin Neurolinguistics, 2018: 143)

Buɗewa da kalmomin aji: [linguistics] kalmomin bude aji (ko kalmomin abun ciki) sunaye ne, ƙididdiga masu cancanta, kalmomin magana da kalmomin magana waɗanda ke ƙare da -mente; rufe kalmomin aji (ko kalmomin aiki o functors) sunaye ne, alamominda basu cancanta ba, labarai, tattaunawa, karin magana da karin magana. Yayinda kalmomin suke isar da ma'anar tsinkaye, masu ba da dariya suna bayyana alaƙa tsakanin kalmomi.

Binciken Abubuwan Taurari na Kayan Fida: [aphasia] tsarin gabatar da Leonard, Rochon and Laird (2008) wanda ya kunshi gabatar da mara lafiya da hoto a tsakiyar takardar tare da neman dawo da kalmar da aka nufa da ita. Ba tare da la’akari da nasara ba, ana sa mai haƙuri ya dawo da kalma mai daɗi, sautin farko, wata kalma da za ta fara da irin wannan sautin da kuma adadin sigar. (duba Boscarato da Modena a ciki Flosi, Charlemagne da Rossetto, Ldon gyara mutum da cutar ta aphasia, 2013: 47)

Gilashin Neuronal: [neuropsychology] Yiwuwar sel sel ya zama mai iya yin wasu ayyukan idan ya zama dole. (Gollin, Ferrari, Peruzzi, Gidan motsa jiki don tunani, 2007: 15).

Testarfin gwaji na ƙididdiga: [psychometry] na nufin yiwuwar ƙin yarda da hasashen banza, ta hanyar gwajin ilimin lissafi, alhali kuwa wannan ƙarya ne.
Misali: idan gwajin da aka bayar tare da samfurin da aka bayar yana da ƙididdigar ƙididdiga na 80%, wannan yana nufin cewa akwai damar 80% na samun bayanai wanda zai sa mu ƙin yarda da tunanin banza, idan har wannan haƙiƙa ƙarya ne (duba kuma Weltkovitz, Cohen da Ewen, isticsididdigar Kimiyyar Halayyar Behavioral, 2009).

Tsarin tsari: [harshe] Canza waya ɗaya tare da wata, yayin jerin abubuwan syllabic ɗin ba su canzawa (duba, misali, Santoro, Panero da Cianetti, Karamin nau'i 1, 2011).

Tsarin tsari: [harshe] Canza tsarin silayar kalma, tare da canza yanayin abubuwa da kuma jerin baqaqe da wasula da ke sanya shi (duba ga misali, Santoro, Panero da Cianetti, Karamin nau'i 1, 2011)

Annabcin biyan bukatar kansa: vedi Tasirin tsammanin

Inganta Ingantaccen Sadarwar Aphasics (PACE) : [aphasia] tsarin aiki don maganceaphasia a cikin abin da mai ilimin kwantar da hankali ke gano duk dabarun da za a iya tabbatarwa da karfafa wadatar sadarwa ta mai haƙuri (duba don dubawa Trombetti a Flosi, Charlemagne da Rossetto, Ldon gyara mutum da cutar ta aphasia, 2013: 105 e Charlemagne, Pragmatic ya kusanci ga Far naaphasia. Daga samfura masu fa'ida zuwa fasahar PACE, 2002)

Darajar nauyi: [psychometry] canjin lissafi na Z maki (tare da ma'anar 0 da daidaitaccen karkacewa 1) a cikin maki tare da ma'anar 10 da daidaitattun daidaituwa 3. Idan aka kwatanta da maki Z saboda haka ya bambanta kawai a cikin bayyanar amma abubuwan sun kasance iri ɗaya ne. Amfaninta shine cewa ya sa ba tsammani cewa maki tare da ƙimar mummuna zai faru, koda kuwa ƙasa da matsakaita. Ana amfani dasu a cikin gwaje-gwaje daban-daban kamar, misali, NEPSY-II.

Scalar ci: [psychometry] canjin lissafi na Z maki (tare da ma'anar 0 da daidaitaccen karkacewa 1) a cikin maki tare da ma'anar 10 da daidaitattun daidaituwa 3. Idan aka kwatanta da maki Z saboda haka ya bambanta kawai a cikin bayyanar amma abubuwan sun kasance iri ɗaya ne. Amfaninta shine cewa ya sa ba tsammani cewa maki tare da ƙimar mummuna zai faru, koda kuwa ƙasa da matsakaita. Ana amfani dasu a cikin gwaje-gwaje daban-daban kamar, misali, WISC-IV.

Matsakaicin maki: [psychometry] darajan da aka yi amfani da su a gwaje-gwaje da yawa (misali a cikin BVN 5-11) tare da kaddarorin da suka yi kama da IQ (duba Har ila yau, a hankali).

T ci (sikelin T): [psychometry] canjin lissafi na Z maki (tare da ma'anar 0 da daidaitaccen karkacewa 1) a cikin maki tare da ma'anar 50 da daidaitattun daidaituwa 10. Idan aka kwatanta da maki Z saboda haka ya banbanta da bayyanar amma kaddarorin sun kasance iri ɗaya. Amfaninta shine cewa yana haifar da abin da ya faru tare da ƙarancin ƙima, koda kuwa ƙananan ƙasa ne (duba kuma Ercolani, Areni da Mannetti, Bincike A Cikin Ilimin Hauka, 1990). Ana amfani dasu a cikin gwaje-gwaje daban-daban kamar, alal misali, Hasumiyar London.

Z ci (daidaitaccen ci): [ƙididdiga, ƙimar psychometry] wanda ke nuna yawan tamanin da ya karkata daga matsakaicin da ake tsammani, idan aka kwatanta shi da daidaitaccen karkatarwa. Sakamakon binciken yana da ma'anar 0 da daidaitaccen daidaituwa 1 wanda ya sa maki Z 0 ya nuna ƙima daidai gwargwado tare da tsammanin, maki sama da 0 yana nuna ƙimar sama da matsakaici kuma maki ƙasa da 0 yana nuna ƙaramin darajar fiye da matsakaita. An samo shi ta hanyar rage ƙimar matsakaici daga ƙimar da aka lura da kuma rarraba komai ta hanyar daidaituwa na matsakaita: (lura darajar - kafofin watsa labaru,) / misali karkacewa (duba kuma Welkowits, Cohen da Ewen, Isticsididdiga na Kimiyyar Halayyar ɗabi'a, 2009).

Q

Quadranopsia: (duba hemianopia)

R

Gwajin da Aka Gudanar da shi (RCT): [tsarin bincike] an ayyana shi azaman "da gaske" ƙirar bincike don yana ba da cikakken ikon yin gwaji akan canjin amfani. Yana ba da cewa abubuwan da ake gudanar da binciken ana rarraba su bazuwar (bazuwar) a cikin ƙungiyar gwaji ko kuma a cikin rukuni na sarrafawa ta yadda kowa da kowa yana da damar guda ɗaya na ƙare a ɗaya ko ɗayan (ƙungiyoyin da ba a ba su ba), don haka rage yiwuwar hakan Rukuni sun banbanta da juna, wanda zai jefa shakku kan yiwuwar tasirin mai ban sha'awa (duba kuma Ercolani, Areni da Mannetti, Bincike A Cikin Ilimin Hauka, 1990).

Kashi dari: [kididdigar, psychometry] daidaituwa bisa matsayin wanda batutuwa suka mamaye wani yanki na ma'auni akan sikelin daga 1 zuwa 99. Ana amfani da su a gwaje-gwaje da yawa, misali a Baturin Italiyanci don ADHD (duba kuma Ercolani, Areni da Mannetti, Bincike A Cikin Ilimin Hauka, 1990).

Hakikanin Manyan Magungunan Raunin Gaskiya (ROT): [neuropsychology] Magungunan likita wanda babban maƙasudin sa shine inganta fuskantarwa a cikin lokaci, sarari kuma game da kai. Akwai ROT na yau da kullun (ingantaccen jerin tarurruka) da kuma ROT na yau da kullun, waɗanda ba kwararrun ma'aikata ke aiwatarwa a cikin yini. (Gollin, Ferrari, Peruzzi, Gidan motsa jiki don tunani, 2007: 13)

Rage Tsarin Syntax (REST). Springer et al., 2000; VD. Basso, Sanin kuma sake ilmantarwaaphasia, 2009: 35)

Reformulation [maganin magana]: dabarar da ta kunshi sake maimaita abin da mai tattaunawar ya samar, ya bar ma’anar ba canzawa ba amma samar da madaidaicin samfurin ta hanyar kara kalma bace ko maye gurbin wata kalma da wacce ta dace ko wacce ta fi dacewa (don karin bayani duba “Dabaru cikin tsoma bakin” Asali na maganin magana a cikin girma, p. 235)

ƙarfafa: [ilimin halin dan adam, halayyar] tashin hankali wanda ya kara ko rage yiwuwar bayyanar wasu dabi'un. Cementarfafa ƙarfafa ya kasu kashi huɗu manyan: manyan, na biyu (ko sharadi), tabbatacce kuma mara ƙarfi ƙarfafa. Cearfafawa na farko sune waɗanda ke da alaƙa da rayuwa (abinci, abin sha, barci, jima'i ...) yayin da ƙarfafawa ta sakandare ta kasance tsaka tsaki na farawa wanda ke samun darajar ƙarfafawa yayin da suke da alaƙa da sauran abubuwan ƙarfafawa waɗanda tuni suna da ƙarfin ƙarfafawa. Reinforarfafa ƙarfafawa yawanci ana samun nutsuwa ta hanyar magana mai gamsarwa kuma ƙara haɓakar yiwuwar halayyar halayya wacce zasu yi tarayya dasu yayin da mummunan ƙarfafa ƙara haɓakar halayyar ta hanyar dakatar da ƙwarin gwiwa mara kyau sakamakon aiwatarwa (duba kuma duba) Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Reserveitive Reserve: [neuropsychology, tsufa] saitunan dabaru na hankali, canji daga mutum zuwa mutum, aiwatarwa don bambanta ko rama hanyoyin tafiyar da cutar ci gaba. Suna dogara ne da halaye na mutum a cikin hanyoyin sadarwa wanda ke bijiro da irin abubuwan rayuwa kamar su ilimi, sana'oi da ayyukan nishadi (duba kuma Passafiume da Di Giacomo, Cutar Alzheimer ta, 2006).

S

Yanada Yanke Sihiri (SFI): [harshe] (ko syllabic ko filomorphic fillers) suna zaune a tsayayyen matsayi a cikin furcin kuma wataƙila suna taka rawar "alamomin matsayi" na abubuwan aikin (Bottari et al., Abubuwan da aka tsara game da tsarin ilimin freeasar Italiyanci kyauta, 1993, wanda aka ambata a cikin: Ripamonti et al., Lepi: Bayyanar da yare na yara, 2017)

Binciken Yanki na Semantic: [aphasia] hanyar da ke nuna cewa dawo da bayanan fahimta yana faruwa ta hanyar samun damar sadarwar ma'amala bisa ga zaton cewa kunna halaye masu alaƙa na manufa ya kamata ya kunna abin da ake so kansa sama da matakin mashigar sa, sauƙaƙe dawo da kalmar, tare da faɗakarwa game da sauran manufofin raba halaye iri ɗaya (duba Boscarato da Modena a Flosi, Charlemagne da Rossetto, Ldon gyara mutum da cutar ta aphasia, 2013: 44).

Sahihancin gwajin: [ƙididdiga]: ikon gwajin don gano batutuwa da keɓaɓɓen sifa (tabbatattun tabbatattu), alal misali kasancewar cutar ta dyslexia. A wata ma'anar, shi ne adadin batutuwa waɗanda, ta hanyar gwaji, suke da tabbaci ga halayyar idan aka kwatanta da jimillar batutuwa waɗanda suka mallake ta a zahiri; Daukar misalin cutar dyslexia, hankali shine kashin adadin batutuwan da basa jin tabuka komai a cikin wani takamaiman gwaji, idan aka kwatanta da jimillar waɗanda a zahiri suke fama da cutar.
Idan muka kira S abin lura, A adadin dyslexics ɗin da aka gano daidai ta hanyar gwajin (tabbatattun gaskiya) da B adadin dyslexics ɗin da ba a gano shi ba (kwatankwacin arya), to za a iya bayyanar da hankalin kamar S = A / (A + B) .

Yanayi: [ilimin halin dan adam, halayyar] Shigar da mai binciken abubuwan amsawar da aka nema. Ya ƙunshi ta hanyar ƙarfafa halayyar batun wanda a hankali yake kusanci da martanin da za'a iya samu (alal misali, sannu a hankali ya kawo dabba don danna ɗan lever) (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Canjin hankali: [neuropsychology] Sauyawa daga mayar da hankali daga abu ɗaya, ko daga wani lamari, zuwa wani, duka suna cikin yanayin da ke tattare da batun (Marzocchi, Molin, Poli, Hankali da Metacognition, 2002: 12).

Cerebellar Cognitive-Affective Syndrome: [neuropsychology] ƙungiyar tauraruwar hankali da rashi tasiri sakamakon rauni na cerebellum. Thearancin zai iya zama da yawa kuma ya shafi yankuna da yawa kamar ƙwaƙwalwar aiki, harshe, ayyukan zartarwa, a fakaice da tsarin koyo, aiki na gani-sarari, kula da hankali, tasiri da tsarin ɗabi'a (Schmahmann, A cerebellum da cognition, 2018).

Cutar cirewar cuta: [neuropsychology] canje-canje na hankali masu nasaba da raunin farin kwayoyin cuta da suka hada bangarorin kwakwalwa daban-daban (duba kuma Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001).

Balint Holmes ciwo: [neuropsychology] cututtukan neuropsychological wanda aka kwatanta da simultanagnosia (kasawa a cikin bayyanar hoto na duniya lokacin da yake tattare da abubuwa da yawa), oculomotor apraxia (kasawa da gangan ya jagoranci kallon zuwa aya) da optic ataxia (gaira a cikin motsi na nasara tare da liman). Wannan ciwo ana alaƙar haɗa shi da cututtukan gamaeto-occipital raunuka (duba kuma Ladàvas da Berti, Manual of Neuropsychology, 2014).

Tsarin Kulawa Mai Kulawa: Norman da Shallice sun tsara yanayin aiki tare da tsarin aiki guda biyu. A farkon lamari tsarin tsari ne na yau da kullun wanda yake wakilta nau'ikan halayen ilmantarwa masu yawa, waɗanda aka zaɓa don mayar da martani ga ƙaddamar da muhalli, gwargwadon matakin kunnawa ta atomatik; A cikin lamari na biyu, lokacin zaɓi na atomatik bai isa ya kunna takamaiman halayen ba ko irin wannan kunnawar ba ta aiki da takamaiman yanayin, Tsarin Mai Kula da Kulawa wanda ke sake fasalin gwagwarmayar halaye daban-daban don zaɓar wanda ya fi dacewa dangane da yanayin (duba kuma Mazzucchi, Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 2012).

Somatoagnosia: Rashin sanin yanayin jikin mutum (duba kuma.) Doron, Parot da kuma Del Miglio, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2001)

Sound: [harshe] Tsarin aiki: maye gurbin sautin kurma da sautin da ya dace. Misali: "bane" don "gurasa" (cf. labarin mu akan Phonetics da Phonology).

Muhimmancin gwajin [kididdiga]: ikon gwajin don gano batutuwan da ba su mallaki wani halayyar ba (akasi na gaske), misali rashin ciwon hauka. A wata ma'anar, shi ne adadin batutuwa waɗanda, ta hanyar gwaji, suka haifar da mummunan ga halaye idan aka kwatanta da jimillar batutuwan da ba su mallake ta da gaske ba; Daukar misalin cutar rashin hankali, takamaiman yanayin adadin wadanda suke da lafiya (ba tare da hauka ba) a kan takamaiman gwaji, idan aka kwatanta da na waɗanda ke da ƙoshin lafiya.
Idan muka kira takamaiman S, A adadin sane daidai gwajin da aka gano (negative na gaskiya) da kuma B yawan sane da gwajin bai gano ba (tabbatattun ƙarya), to za a iya bayyani dalla-dalla azaman S = A / (A + B) .

sitiriyo: [ilimin halin dan adam] Kwatantawa ana maimaita maimaituwa daya ko fiye halaye. Zasu iya zama nau'ikan daban-daban: motar, a rubuce ko magana ta magana, cikin wasanni, zane, da sauransu. (duba kuma - Galimberti, Sabuwar Dictionaryabilar Magungunan Ilimin Jima'i, 2018).

Tsaya: [harshe] maye gurbin lambar ci gaba mai amfani da wacce ba ta ci gaba ba (Ex: dal per giallo) (cf. labarin mu akan Phonetics da Phonology).

subitizing: [neuropsychology] ikon hanzarta kuma daidai rarrabe karamin adadin abubuwan abubuwa (Kaufman et al., Bambancin lambar gani, 1949).

Sulcus glottidis: rauni na [murya] wanda ya haifar da haɗarin muryar muryar da ke haifar da jakar da ke shigar da kanta cikin sararin Reinke. An yi imanin sakamakon daga buɗewar kwatsam na epidermoid mafitsara a farkon shekarun rayuwa (cf. Albera da Rossi, Otolaryngology, 2018: 251).

T

Ka'idar Fahimtar Ilimin koyon Labarai da yawa ko Cflix: [ilmantarwa] ka'idar da ke hango wanzuwar tashoshi biyu na ilmantarwa, daya na gani da kuma sauraro daya, kowane daya daga cikinsu yana da iyakantaccen iyawa (abubuwa 3 ko 4 a lokaci guda). Za a iya sarrafa ƙarin bayanai daban-daban, sabili da haka a koya, idan aka raba ta tashoshi biyu (na gani da sauraro) maimakon guda ɗaya (alal misali, rubutaccen rubutu da hotuna); wannan ake kira tasirin yanayin.
Idan, a gefe guda, muna samar da irin wannan bayanin a cikin hanya mai ma'ana a kan tashoshi da yawa (na gani da duba) maimakon ɗaya kawai (misali, auditory), wannan ka'idar tana ƙaddara lalacewa a cikin aikin da aka danganta da yawan nauyin ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar aiki; wannan ana kiransa sakamako na sakewa (duba kuma) Mayer da Fiorella, Ka'idoji don Rage Tsara Tsara a cikin Karatun Multimedia: Hadin kai, Alamar, Maimaitawa, Tsarin sarari, da ciplesa'idojin Sauke Lokaci, 2014)

Tattalin Arziki na Token (Tsarin Karfafawa Token): [ilimin halin dan Adam, halayyar] halayyar dan adam wanda ya kunshi zartar da "kwangila" tsakanin wani batun da iyayen sa ko mai koyar da shi, ta hanyar da yake kafa dokoki; sai a ba da alama ta alama (ko alama) don kowane halayen halayen da waɗannan sharuɗan ke buƙata, yayin da za a cire kowane alama ko kuma ba za a bayar da ƙima ɗaya ba. Bayan sun kai adadin da aka ƙaddara, waɗannan za a canza su zuwa kari da aka amince da su (duba kuma Rikicin da Spagnoletti, Yara masu rashin kulawa da rashin hankali: Horar Iyaye, 2013).

V

tushe: digiri [psychometry] wanda wani kayan aiki (gwaji) a zahiri yana auna canjin ban sha'awa. Ya ƙunshi da farko na ingancin abun ciki, ingancin cancanta da kuma ingancin inganci (duba kuma Isticsididdiga na Kimiyyar halayyar ɗabi'a, Welkowitz, Cohen da Ewen, 2009).

Darajar annabta ba ta dace ba: [ƙididdiga] yiwuwar gwaji na ƙididdigar gwaji don kimanta adadin abubuwan da aka bayyana daidai ba samun halayyar (rashin gaskiya ta gaskiya) dangane da jimlar waɗancan da ba su dace da irin wannan halayyar ba. Misali, idan muka kasance a gaban gwaji don gano batutuwa na aphasic, ƙimar tsinkayar mummunan zata zama rabo tsakanin batutuwa masu ƙoshin lafiya waɗanda aka tantance daidai ta hanyar gwajin dangane da jimlar lafiya da ƙari na asasin da ke da kyau a cikin gwajin (na gaske lafiya + aphasic) ba daidai ba a matsayin mai lafiya).
Idan muka kira VPN mara kyau na tsinkayar ƙimar, A jimlar tabbatattun ƙayyadaddun batutuwa da ƙididdigar yawan Bishiyoyi marasa daidaituwa a matsayin aphasic to muna iya bayyana ƙaddarar darajar marasa kyau kamar haka: VPN = A / (A + B).

Ingantaccen darajar tsinkaye: [ƙididdigar] yiwuwar gwaji na ƙarshe na gwaji don kimanta rabo na abubuwan da aka gano daidai da kasancewa halayyar halayyar gaskiya (tabbatacciyar gaskiya) dangane da wadatattun waɗanda ke da halayyar wannan halayyar ɗaya (tabbatattun gaskiya + tabbatattun ƙarya). Misali, idan muka kasance a gaban gwaji don gano batutuwa na aphasic, ingantacciyar darajar tsinkaye zata zama rabo tsakanin kwastomomi wadanda aka gano daidai ta hanyar gwajin idan aka kwatanta da jimlar aphasics da wadanda basu dace ba don gwajin (gaskiya aphasics da lafiya bincikar lafiya ba daidai ba kamar yadda aphasic).
Idan muka kira VPP kyakkyawar ƙaddara mai ƙimar inganci, Adadin abubuwan da aka gano daidai kuma B wadatattun batutuwa masu ƙoshin lafiya ba daidai ba azaman asirinsu sannan zamu iya bayyana ƙimar tsinkaye kamar haka: VPP = A / (A + B).

Ishingirƙirare lambobi (Hanyar rage shawarwari): [tsarin karatun ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa] wanda aka mayar da hankali kan raguwar ci gaba na shawarwari game da bayanan da za a iya tunawa, bayan tsarin ilmantarwa guda (duba kuma Glisky, Schacter da Tulving, Koyo da kuma riƙe kalmomin da ke da alaƙa da kwamfuta a cikin marasa lafiya masu fama da ƙwaƙwalwar ƙwaƙwalwa: Hanyar ɓacewa, 1986).

sãɓã wa jũna: [ƙididdiga] gwargwadon yawan bambance bambancen sigogin da suke da ma'anarsu; auna yadda wadannan dabi'un suke karkatar da shi kwatankwacin ma'ana ilmin lissafi (duba kuma Rikicin da Spagnoletti, Yara masu rashin kulawa da rashin hankali: Horar Iyaye, 2013).

vergeture: (muryar) bacin rai na madaidaicin murfin murfin magana tare da mannewar mucosa zuwa ga sautin muryar (cf. Albera da Rossi, Otolaryngology, 2018: 251)

Fara bugawa kuma latsa Shigar don bincika